How to format your references using the Positivity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Positivity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lewis, J.: From signals to patterns: space, time, and mathematics in developmental biology. Science. 322, 399–403 (2008)
A journal article with 2 authors
Perepichka, D.F., Rosei, F.: Chemistry. Extending polymer conjugation into the second dimension. Science. 323, 216–217 (2009)
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun, A., Lauher, J.W., Goroff, N.S.: Preparation of poly(diiododiacetylene), an ordered conjugated polymer of carbon and iodine. Science. 312, 1030–1034 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, S., Yu, M., Deng, H., Shen, G., Wei, Y.: Polyclonal rabbit anti-human ovarian cancer globulins inhibit tumor growth through apoptosis involving the caspase signaling. Sci. Rep. 4, 4984 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, D.: TKO Management! John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2007)
An edited book
Hakansson, A., Hartung, R. eds: Agent and Multi-Agent Systems in Distributed Systems - Digital Economy and E-Commerce. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Lyubina, J.: Magnetocaloric Materials. In: Zhukov, A. (ed.) Novel Functional Magnetic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications. pp. 115–186. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Positivity.

Blog post
Taub, B.: Ireland Wants To Legalize Supervised Heroin Use


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Further Improvement Needed in the Management of Magnetic Tapes by Goddard Space Flight Center. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1970)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jansson, A.: Stratigraphy, Landscape Evolution, and Past Environments at the Billy Big Spring Site, Montana, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W.: Creditors of Stockton Fight City Over Pension Funding While in Bankruptcy, (2012)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePositivity
ISSN (print)1385-1292
ISSN (online)1572-9281
ScopeGeneral Mathematics
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles