How to format your references using the Positivity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Positivity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Orgel, L.E.: Molecular biology. Retrospective: Francis Crick (1916-2004). Science. 305, 1118 (2004)
A journal article with 2 authors
Cisek, P., Kalaska, J.F.: Neural correlates of mental rehearsal in dorsal premotor cortex. Nature. 431, 993–996 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Nieder, A., Diester, I., Tudusciuc, O.: Temporal and spatial enumeration processes in the primate parietal cortex. Science. 313, 1431–1435 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rong, H., Liu, A., Jones, R., Cohen, O., Hak, D., Nicolaescu, R., Fang, A., Paniccia, M.: An all-silicon Raman laser. Nature. 433, 292–294 (2005)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wolf, E.L.: Nanophysics of Solar and Renewable Energy. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2012)
An edited book
Taylor, L.D.: Consumer Demand in the United States: Prices, Income, and Consumption Behavior. Springer, New York, NY (2010)
A chapter in an edited book
Christopher, C., Hussein, W.M.A., Wang, Z.: On the Integrability of Lotka–Volterra Equations: An Update. In: Toni, B. (ed.) Mathematical Sciences with Multidisciplinary Applications: In Honor of Professor Christiane Rousseau. And In Recognition of the Mathematics for Planet Earth Initiative. pp. 79–89. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Positivity.

Blog post
Davis, J.: As India Experiences Record Heat, Where Is The Hottest Place On Earth?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service’s Fiscal Year 2009 Expenditure Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2009)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cappiello, D.M.: Minding the gap: Western export controls and soviet technology policy during the 1960s, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J.: Once Damaged Goods, Mets Reliever Returns to the Top Shelf, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePositivity
ISSN (print)1385-1292
ISSN (online)1572-9281
ScopeGeneral Mathematics
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles