How to format your references using the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sibley CH. Infectious diseases. Understanding artemisinin resistance. Science 2015; 347: 373–374.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hayden MR, Ling V. Michael Smith (1932-2000). Nature 2000; 408: 786.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lia G, Michel B, Allemand J-F. Polymerase exchange during Okazaki fragment synthesis observed in living cells. Science 2012; 335: 328–331.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kiers ET, Leakey RRB, Izac A-M, Heinemann JA, Rosenthal E, Nathan D et al. Ecology. Agriculture at a crossroads. Science 2008; 320: 320–321.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tasman A, Kay J, Ursano RJ. The Psychiatric Interview. John Wiley & Sons: Oxford, 2013.
An edited book
Gorlewski JA, Gorlewski DA (eds.). Making it Real: Case Stories for Secondary Teachers. SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Massone C, Nunzi E. Pathogenesis. In: Nunzi E, Massone C (eds). Leprosy: A Practical Guide. Springer: Milano, 2012, pp 39–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Blog post
Davis J. Doctors Warn About New Year ‘Detoxes’. IFLScience. 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Financial Aid Information: Systems Architecture Needed to Improve Programs’ Efficiency. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Laird T. Risk and protective factors associated with adjudicated versus non -adjudicated youths arrested for substance use. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Weigh Opening New Phase on Guantánamo. New York Times. 2007; : A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
AbbreviationEur. J. Clin. Nutr.
ISSN (print)0954-3007
ISSN (online)1476-5640
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
Nutrition and Dietetics

Other styles