How to format your references using the Frontiers in Robotics and AI citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Robotics and AI. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brenner, S. E. (2007). Common sense for our genomes. Nature 449, 783–784.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ettema, T. J. G., and Andersson, S. G. E. (2008). Comment on “A 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate autotrophic carbon dioxide assimilation pathway in Archaea.” Science 321, 342; author reply 342.
A journal article with 3 authors
Prakash, M., Quéré, D., and Bush, J. W. M. (2008). Surface tension transport of prey by feeding shorebirds: the capillary ratchet. Science 320, 931–934.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Croft, M. T., Lawrence, A. D., Raux-Deery, E., Warren, M. J., and Smith, A. G. (2005). Algae acquire vitamin B12 through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria. Nature 438, 90–93.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morana, J. (2013). Sustainable Supply Chain Management. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Djokić, S. ed. (2016). Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications of Electrochemistry. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Stonedahl, F., and Wilensky, U. (2011). “Finding Forms of Flocking: Evolutionary Search in ABM Parameter-Spaces,” in Multi-Agent-Based Simulation XI: International Workshop, MABS 2010, Toronto, Canada, May 11, 2010, Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. T. Bosse, A. Geller, and C. M. Jonker (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 61–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Robotics and AI.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015). New Peruvian Frog Has White Splotches On Its Belly. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011). NASA: Assessments of Selected Large-Scale Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shimizu, K. (2013). The Procurement System of the Japanese Space Agency: Present Challenges, Future Promise.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2015). ‘Sisters in Law.’ New York Times, BR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brenner, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Brenner, 2007; Ettema and Andersson, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ettema and Andersson, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Croft et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Robotics and AI
AbbreviationFront. Robot. AI
ISSN (online)2296-9144

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