How to format your references using the Frontiers in Robotics and AI citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Robotics and AI. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tegmark, M. (2007). Many lives in many worlds. Nature 448, 23–24.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vilotijevic, I., and Jamison, T. F. (2007). Epoxide-opening cascades promoted by water. Science 317, 1189–1192.
A journal article with 3 authors
Komarova, N. L., Levy, D. N., and Wodarz, D. (2013). Synaptic transmission and the susceptibility of HIV infection to anti-viral drugs. Sci. Rep. 3, 2103.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yoon, A., Peng, G., Brandenburger, Y., Brandenburg, Y., Zollo, O., Xu, W., et al. (2006). Impaired control of IRES-mediated translation in X-linked dyskeratosis congenita. Science 312, 902–906.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hunter, D. A. (2014). A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Landoni, G., Mucchetti, M., Zangrillo, A., and Bellomo, R. eds. (2015). Reducing Mortality in Critically Ill Patients. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Saddik, A. E., Orozco, M., Eid, M., and Cha, J. (2011). “Computer Haptics,” in Haptics Technologies: Bringing Touch to Multimedia Springer Series on Touch and Haptic Systems., eds. M. Orozco, M. Eid, and J. Cha (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 105–143.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Robotics and AI.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). You Have A Higher Chance Of Being Bitten By Uruguay’s Luis Suarez Than By A Shark. IFLScience. Available at:’s-luis-suarez-shark/ [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). Reported Year 2000 (Y2K) Readiness Status of 25 Large School Districts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Landry, C. (2017). A Phenomenological Investigation of the Factors that Influence Motivation, Recruitment and Retention of Volunteers Age 65 and Over.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Samuels, D. (2016). The Storyteller and the President. New York Times, MM44.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tegmark, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Tegmark, 2007; Vilotijevic and Jamison, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vilotijevic and Jamison, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Yoon et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Robotics and AI
AbbreviationFront. Robot. AI
ISSN (online)2296-9144

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