How to format your references using the Frontiers in Robotics and AI citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Robotics and AI. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Büttiker, M. (2006). Physics. Detecting and controlling electron correlations. Science 313, 1587–1588.
A journal article with 2 authors
Retchless, A. C., and Lawrence, J. G. (2007). Temporal fragmentation of speciation in bacteria. Science 317, 1093–1096.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karsai, M., Perra, N., and Vespignani, A. (2014). Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties. Sci. Rep. 4, 4001.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang, J., Huang, W., Chua, S. S., Wei, P., and Moore, D. D. (2002). Modulation of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity by the xenobiotic receptor CAR. Science 298, 422–424.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lyatkher, V. M., and Proudovsky, A. M. (2016). Hydraulic Modeling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Li, S. Z., and Jain, A. K. eds. (2011). Handbook of Face Recognition. Second Edition. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Taha, S., and Shen, X. (2013). “Conclusions and Future Directions,” in Secure IP Mobility Management for VANET SpringerBriefs in Computer Science., ed. X. Shen (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 103–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Robotics and AI.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016). The United Arab Emirates Want To Build An Artificial Mountain. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996). Amendment of FCC Rules to Deregulate the Equipment Authorization Requirements for Digital Devices. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swinford, R. R. (2012). Adapted dance - connecting mind, body and soul.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2002). World Briefing | Europe: Ukraine: Court Rejects Charges Against President. New York Times, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Büttiker, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Büttiker, 2006; Retchless and Lawrence, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Retchless and Lawrence, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Robotics and AI
AbbreviationFront. Robot. AI
ISSN (online)2296-9144

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