How to format your references using the Frontiers in Robotics and AI citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Robotics and AI. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jackson, C. M. (2005). Archaeology. Glassmaking in Bronze-Age Egypt. Science 308, 1750–1752.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bell, A. C., and Felsenfeld, G. (2000). Methylation of a CTCF-dependent boundary controls imprinted expression of the Igf2 gene. Nature 405, 482–485.
A journal article with 3 authors
Acar, M., Becskei, A., and van Oudenaarden, A. (2005). Enhancement of cellular memory by reducing stochastic transitions. Nature 435, 228–232.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li, M., Guan, S., Wu, C., Gong, X., Li, K., Wu, J., et al. (2014). From sparse to dense and from assortative to disassortative in online social networks. Sci. Rep. 4, 4861.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rémy, J.-G., and Letamendia, C. (2013). Home Area Networks and IPTV. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Vohr, H.-W. ed. (2016). Encyclopedia of Immunotoxicology. 2nd ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lavretsky, E., and Wise, K. A. (2013). “State Feedback H∞ Optimal Control,” in Robust and Adaptive Control: With Aerospace Applications Advanced Textbooks in Control and Signal Processing., ed. K. A. Wise (London: Springer), 73–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Robotics and AI.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013). The Science of Naming New Discoveries. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013). Transit Asset Management: Additional Research on Capital Investment Effects Could Help Transit Agencies Optimize Funding. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wells, J. P. (2010). A case study of educators’ perceptions of the effects of high -stakes testing and accountability policies on high- and low-poverty middle schools in a Maryland school district.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Grynbaum, M. M. (2017). ‘Transparency’ Of Tweets Risks Eroding Media’s Trust. New York Times, A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jackson, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Bell and Felsenfeld, 2000; Jackson, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bell and Felsenfeld, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Robotics and AI
AbbreviationFront. Robot. AI
ISSN (online)2296-9144

Other styles