How to format your references using the Porcine Health Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Porcine Health Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Thiffeault J-L. Oceans. Chaos in the Gulf. Science. 2010;330:458–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Boesz C, Lloyd N. Collaborations: investigating international misconduct. Nature. 2008;452:686–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Cai W, Vasudev AP, Brongersma ML. Electrically controlled nonlinear generation of light with plasmonics. Science. 2011;333:1720–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Deng H, Weihs G, Santori C, Bloch J, Yamamoto Y. Condensation of semiconductor microcavity exciton polaritons. Science. 2002;298:199–202.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Horrocks G. Greek. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
1. Stock O, Schaerf M, editors. Reasoning, Action and Interaction in AI Theories and Systems: Essays Dedicated to Luigia Carlucci Aiello. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Wang G-G, Gandomi AH, Alavi AH. Study of Lagrangian and Evolutionary Parameters in Krill Herd Algorithm. In: Fister I, Fister I Jr, editors. Adaptation and Hybridization in Computational Intelligence. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 111–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Porcine Health Management.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. The Myths And Facts Of HIV And AIDS. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security: TSA Could Strengthen Monitoring of Allegations of Employee Misconduct. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013 Jul. Report No.: GAO-13-624.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Rawashdeh MY. A Relational Framework for Clustering and Cluster Validity and the Generalization of the Silhouette Measure [Doctoral dissertation]. [Cincinnati, OH]: University of Cincinnati; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Crow K. Sailors’ Quarters, Once 25 Cents. New York Times. 2001 Apr 22;143.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePorcine Health Management
AbbreviationPorcine Health Manag.
ISSN (online)2055-5660

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