How to format your references using the GeoJournal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GeoJournal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sibley, C. H. (2015). Infectious diseases. Understanding artemisinin resistance. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6220), 373–374.
A journal article with 2 authors
Galán, J. E., & Wolf-Watz, H. (2006). Protein delivery into eukaryotic cells by type III secretion machines. Nature, 444(7119), 567–573.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, H., Ma, Z., & Liu, J.-F. (2014). Equilibrium spin current in graphene with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Scientific reports, 4, 6464.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hao, L., Sakurai, A., Watanabe, T., Sorensen, E., Nidom, C. A., Newton, M. A., et al. (2008). Drosophila RNAi screen identifies host genes important for influenza virus replication. Nature, 454(7206), 890–893.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lavagnini, I., Magno, F., Seraglia, R., & Traldi, P. (2006). Quantitative Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Otagiri, M., & Chuang, V. T. G. (Eds.). (2016). Albumin in Medicine: Pathological and Clinical Applications. Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kalogeras, N., Pennings, J. M. E., Dijk, G. van, & van der Lans, I. A. (2007). The Structure of Marketing Cooperatives. In J. Nilsson (Ed.), Vertical Markets and Cooperative Hierarchies: The Role of Cooperatives in the Agri-Food Industry (pp. 73–92). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GeoJournal.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, February 9). E-Cigarette Vapor Shown To Repress Immune System. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). K-12 Education: Internal Controls for Program Management and Oversight Can Help Ensure the Success of School Choice Programs (No. GAO-16-212T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolodkowicz, R. (2008). Leadership qualities and employee-student future intentions (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017, June 4). Crowd Lifts Frenchwoman. Now, Who Will Hoist a First Major Trophy? New York Times, p. D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sibley 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Galán and Wolf-Watz 2006; Sibley 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Galán and Wolf-Watz 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Hao et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoJournal
ISSN (print)0343-2521
ISSN (online)1572-9893
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

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