How to format your references using the GeoJournal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GeoJournal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marris, E. (2005). India in demand. Nature, 433(7028), 902–903.
A journal article with 2 authors
Walck, J., & Dixon, K. (2009). Time to future-proof plants in storage. Nature, 462(7274), 721.
A journal article with 3 authors
Froemke, R. C., Merzenich, M. M., & Schreiner, C. E. (2007). A synaptic memory trace for cortical receptive field plasticity. Nature, 450(7168), 425–429.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Iverson, N. R., Cohen, D., Hooyer, T. S., Fischer, U. H., Jackson, M., Moore, P. L., et al. (2003). Effects of basal debris on glacier flow. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5629), 81–84.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alhabeeb, M. J. (2012). Mathematical Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Machado, C. (Ed.). (2015). International Human Resources Management: Challenges and Changes. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bobkov, S. G., & Madiman, M. M. (2013). On the Problem of Reversibility of the Entropy Power Inequality. In P. Eichelsbacher, G. Elsner, H. Kösters, M. Löwe, F. Merkl, & S. Rolles (Eds.), Limit Theorems in Probability, Statistics and Number Theory: In Honor of Friedrich Götze (pp. 61–74). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GeoJournal.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 29). Ocean Predators Can Help Reset Our Planet’s Thermostat. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Significant Risks Remain to Department of Education’s Student Financial Aid Systems (No. T-AIMD-98-302). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Panteleyeva, N. B. (2010). Statistical methods of latent structure discovery in child-directed speech (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, J. (2017, September 27). Google Yields To Regulators In Eurozone. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marris 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Marris 2005; Walck and Dixon 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Walck and Dixon 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Iverson et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoJournal
ISSN (print)0343-2521
ISSN (online)1572-9893
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

Other styles