How to format your references using the GeoJournal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GeoJournal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smetacek, V. (2002). Microbial food webs. The ocean’s veil. Nature, 419(6907), 565.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson, L. D. S., & Jameson, S. C. (2009). Immunology. A chronic need for IL-21. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5934), 1525–1526.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gwak, G., Ko, J., & Ju, H. (2014). Effects of porous properties on cold-start behavior of polymer electrolyte fuel cells from sub-zero to normal operating temperatures. Scientific reports, 4, 5770.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Krattinger, S. G., Lagudah, E. S., Spielmeyer, W., Singh, R. P., Huerta-Espino, J., McFadden, H., et al. (2009). A putative ABC transporter confers durable resistance to multiple fungal pathogens in wheat. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5919), 1360–1363.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Askoolum, A. (2007). System Building with APL + Win. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Yeung, D.-Y., Kwok, J. T., Fred, A., Roli, F., & Ridder, D. de (Eds.). (2006). Structural, Syntactic, and Statistical Pattern Recognition: Joint IAPR International Workshops, SSPR 2006 and SPR 2006, Hong Kong, China, August 17-19, 2006. Proceedings (Vol. 4109). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bürgisser, P., & Cucker, F. (2013). Probabilistic Analysis of Rectangular Matrices. In F. Cucker (Ed.), Condition: The Geometry of Numerical Algorithms (pp. 77–100). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GeoJournal.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, February 23). GOP Lawmaker: Mexican Marijuana Hides Secret Nukes Being Smuggled Into US. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Children’s Television Act: FCC Could Improve Efforts to Oversee Enforcement and Provide Public Information (No. GAO-11-659). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moulder, J. C. (2010). Comparative analgesic effects of prepulse inhibition and reduced voltage waveforms in defibrillation (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, October 8). Nationals Stage a Late Comeback, Perhaps Exorcising Some Demons. New York Times, p. SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smetacek 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Johnson and Jameson 2009; Smetacek 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johnson and Jameson 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Krattinger et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoJournal
ISSN (print)0343-2521
ISSN (online)1572-9893
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

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