How to format your references using the GeoJournal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GeoJournal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aebischer, P. (2012). Philanthropy: The price of charity. Nature, 481(7381), 260.
A journal article with 2 authors
King, D. A., & Thomas, S. M. (2007). Big lessons for a healthy future. Nature, 449(7164), 791–792.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kicheva, A., Cohen, M., & Briscoe, J. (2012). Developmental pattern formation: insights from physics and biology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6104), 210–212.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Qian, Y., Qiu, M., Wu, Q., Tian, Y., Zhang, Y., Gu, N., et al. (2014). Enhanced cytotoxic activity of cetuximab in EGFR-positive lung cancer by conjugating with gold nanoparticles. Scientific reports, 4, 7490.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nahar, L., & Sarker, S. D. (2012). Steroid Dimers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Cardoso, J., & Sheth, A. (Eds.). (2005). Semantic Web Services and Web Process Composition: First International Workshop, SWSWPC 2004, San Diego, CA, USA, July 6, 2004, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 3387). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bambi, C., & Dolgov, A. D. (2016). Cosmological Models. In A. D. Dolgov (Ed.), Introduction to Particle Cosmology: The Standard Model of Cosmology and its Open Problems (pp. 53–70). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GeoJournal.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, March 18). New Species Of Catfish Named “Greedo” After Star Wars Bounty Hunter. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Head Start: Undercover Testing Finds Fraud and Abuse at Selected Head Start Centers (No. GAO-10-733T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reynaldo, R. (2017). Healthcare Leaders Under the Age of 40 - Successful Strategies and Practices for Leading Healthcare Organizations (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Scott, M., & Kanter, J. (2016, December 20). European Officials Say Facebook Misled Them About WhatsApp. New York Times, p. B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Aebischer 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Aebischer 2012; King and Thomas 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (King and Thomas 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Qian et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoJournal
ISSN (print)0343-2521
ISSN (online)1572-9893
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

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