How to format your references using the Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lloyd S. Ultimate physical limits to computation. Nature 2000;406:1047–54.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mbadugha CA, Onakoya AO. The awareness, perceptions and experiences of primary open angle glaucoma patients in Lagos Nigeria. Sci Rep 2014;4:7585.
A journal article with 3 authors
Carporzen L, Gilder SA, Hart RJ. Palaeomagnetism of the Vredefort meteorite crater and implications for craters on Mars. Nature 2005;435:198–201.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim BC, Matsuoka T, Moraes C, Huang J, Thouless MD, Takayama S. Guided fracture of films on soft substrates to create micro/nano-feature arrays with controlled periodicity. Sci Rep 2013;3:3027.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blair R, Regenstein JM. Genetic Modification and Food Quality. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Davidson S, Vallée M-A, editors. Hermeneutics and Phenomenology in Paul Ricoeur: Between Text and Phenomenon. vol. 2. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Bühler C, Pelka B. Empowerment by Digital Media of People with Disabilities. In: Miesenberger K, Fels D, Archambault D, Peňáz P, Zagler W, editors. Computers Helping People with Special Needs: 14th International Conference, ICCHP 2014, Paris, France, July 9-11, 2014, Proceedings, Part I, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 17–24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Elon Musk Unveils The Ridiculously Big Tesla Gigfactory. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Judicial Space Follow-up. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gillespie L. Trust in Leadership: Investigation of Andragogical Learning and Implications for Student Placement Outcomes. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. U.S. Faulted Over Pay at Rescued Firms. New York Times 2012:B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostic and Interventional Imaging
AbbreviationDiagn. Interv. Imaging
ISSN (print)2211-5684
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles