How to format your references using the Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russo E. The changing length of PhDs. Nature 2004;431:382–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Solomon TH, Mezić I. Uniform resonant chaotic mixing in fluid flows. Nature 2003;425:376–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gao G, Guo X, Goff SP. Inhibition of retroviral RNA production by ZAP, a CCCH-type zinc finger protein. Science 2002;297:1703–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xu Y, Reid MJ, Zheng XW, Menten KM. The distance to the Perseus spiral arm in the Milky Way. Science 2006;311:54–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pan GW. Wavelets in Electromagnetics and Device Modeling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2003.
An edited book
Kilpatrick B, Kobel P, Këllezi P, editors. Compatibility of Transactional Resolutions of Antitrust Proceedings with Due Process and Fundamental Rights & Online Exhaustion of IP Rights. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Mui R, Frankl P. Preventing Web Application Injections with Complementary Character Coding. In: Atluri V, Diaz C, editors. Computer Security – ESORICS 2011: 16th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, Leuven, Belgium, September 12-14,2011. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p. 80–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Treatment Effectively Reverses Tooth Decay, Could Make Dentist’s Drills Obsolete. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Missile Development: Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) Certification Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hooper KJ. Los Angeles School Police Department Arrest Diversion: A Process Evaluation. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hager EB, Mazzetti M. Emirates Secretly Sends Colombian Mercenaries to Yemen Fight. New York Times 2015:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostic and Interventional Imaging
AbbreviationDiagn. Interv. Imaging
ISSN (print)2211-5684
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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