How to format your references using the Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ross FM. Opportunities and challenges in liquid cell electron microscopy. Science 2015;350:aaa9886.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boyd RW, Gauthier DJ. Controlling the velocity of light pulses. Science 2009;326:1074–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Levine JH, Lin Y, Elowitz MB. Functional roles of pulsing in genetic circuits. Science 2013;342:1193–200.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Maria SF, Russell LM, Gilles MK, Myneni SCB. Organic aerosol growth mechanisms and their climate-forcing implications. Science 2004;306:1921–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belliotti RA. Dante’s Deadly Sins. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Cleophas TJ. SPSS for Starters and 2nd Levelers. 2nd ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Blischke WR, Rezaul Karim M, Prabhakar Murthy DN. Supplementary Warranty Data. In: Karim MR, Murthy DNP, editors. Warranty Data Collection and Analysis, London: Springer; 2011, p. 79–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging.

Blog post
Fang J. Offshore Wind Farms Are Havens For Seals. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. VA Education Benefits: Student Characteristics and Outcomes Vary across Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wang Y. Yield aggregation impacts on area-based insurance and commodity program. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices, 5 to 4, Overturn 3 Texas Death Sentences. New York Times 2007:A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostic and Interventional Imaging
AbbreviationDiagn. Interv. Imaging
ISSN (print)2211-5684
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles