How to format your references using the Population Health Metrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Population Health Metrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ekeland I I. Mathematics. Curves and numbers. Nature. 2000;405:748–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Blasius B, Stone L. Ecology. Nonlinearity and the Moran effect. Nature. 2000;406:846–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hirata A, Klein BJ, Murakami KS. The X-ray crystal structure of RNA polymerase from Archaea. Nature. 2008;451:851–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Delsuc F, Brinkmann H, Chourrout D, Philippe H. Tunicates and not cephalochordates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates. Nature. 2006;439:965–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kerzner H. Project Management 2.0. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1. Obaidat MS, Lorenz P, editors. E-Business and Telecommunications: 12th International Joint Conference, ICETE 2015, Colmar, France, July 20–22, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Brezski RJ, Monroe JG. BCR-linked Factors in Developmental Fate Decisions. In: Gupta S, Alt F, Cooper M, Melchers F, Rajewsky K, editors. Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation XI: B Cell Biology. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007. p. 47–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Population Health Metrics.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. 14 Science-Backed Answers To Your Biggest Questions About Wine [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/14-sciencebacked-answers-to-your-biggest-questions-about-wine/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Readiness of State Automated Systems That Support Federal Human Services Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Feb. Report No.: T-AIMD-99-91.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gomez VA. La Lucha Sigue: Undocumented Students Challenging Anti-Immigrant Discourses [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly M. Ideology Seems to Doom Cabinet Contender. New York Times. 1992 Dec 17;B20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePopulation Health Metrics
AbbreviationPopul. Health Metr.
ISSN (online)1478-7954
ScopeEpidemiology
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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