How to format your references using the Population Health Metrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Population Health Metrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Schiermeier Q. Europe told to unite on spy satellites. Nature. 2003;422:361.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Coffin JM, Stoye JP. Virology. A new virus for old diseases? Science. 2009;326:530–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Prieto MA, Brunetti G, Mack K-H. Particle accelerators in the hot spots of radio galaxy 3C 445, imaged with the VLT. Science. 2002;298:193–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gliki G, Ebnet K, Aurrand-Lions M, Imhof BA, Adams RH. Spermatid differentiation requires the assembly of a cell polarity complex downstream of junctional adhesion molecule-C. Nature. 2004;431:320–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Garde F, Aelenei D, Aelenei L, Scognamiglio A, Ayoub J. Solution Sets for Net-Zero Energy Buildings. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2017.
An edited book
1. Portelli J, Smolders I, editors. Central Functions of the Ghrelin Receptor. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cevikcan E, Ustundag A. Decision Making for Determining the Implementation Level of RFID Projects. In: Ustundag A, editor. The Value of RFID: Benefits vs Costs. London: Springer; 2013. p. 53–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Population Health Metrics.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Revealed: Why Your Pinot Noir Is Actually A Pinot Blanc (Or Was That A Pinot Gris?) [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/revealed-why-your-pinot-noir-actually-pinot-blanc-or-was-pinot-gris/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. [Comments on Amtrak Labor Protection Issues]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Oct. Report No.: B-277814.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Caprile JA. The geochemical influence of trace element concentrations from marine sedimentary bedrock on freshwater streams in the western Transverse Mountain Ranges [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Yablonsky L. Museo Drive. New York Times. 2010 Oct 17;M256.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePopulation Health Metrics
AbbreviationPopul. Health Metr.
ISSN (online)1478-7954
ScopeEpidemiology
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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