How to format your references using the Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C Clarke, S. A. (2000). Stranger than science fiction. Science 289, 727.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tilman, D., and Snell-Rood, E. C. (2014). Ecology: Diversity breeds complementarity. Nature 515, 44–45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alby, K., Schaefer, D., and Bennett, R. J. (2009). Homothallic and heterothallic mating in the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. Nature 460, 890–893.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chow, A., Toomre, D., Garrett, W., and Mellman, I. (2002). Dendritic cell maturation triggers retrograde MHC class II transport from lysosomes to the plasma membrane. Nature 418, 988–994.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wahbi, M. (2013). Algorithms and Ordering Heuristics for Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Duan, X., and Evans, D. G. eds. (2006). Layered Double Hydroxides. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wallis, V. (2010). “Socialism and Technology: A Sectoral Overview,” in Eco-socialism as Politics: Rebuilding the Basis of Our Modern Civilisation, ed. Q. Huan (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 45–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Pharmacology.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015). Is Masturbation Good For You? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998). Balancing Flexibility and Accountability: Grant Program Design in Education and Other Areas. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stangl, B. L. (2010). The mediation of cognitive task performance in post-menopausal women: An examination of the effects of DHEA upon cognition.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2002). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Cooperation, Of Sorts, From Georgia. New York Times, A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (C Clarke, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (C Clarke, 2000; Tilman and Snell-Rood, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tilman and Snell-Rood, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Chow et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Gastrointestinal Pharmacology
AbbreviationFront. Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)1663-9812
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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