How to format your references using the Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Diamond, J. (2002). Evolution, consequences and future of plant and animal domestication. Nature 418, 700–707.
A journal article with 2 authors
Valadkhan, S., and Manley, J. L. (2001). Splicing-related catalysis by protein-free snRNAs. Nature 413, 701–707.
A journal article with 3 authors
Randow, F., MacMicking, J. D., and James, L. C. (2013). Cellular self-defense: how cell-autonomous immunity protects against pathogens. Science 340, 701–706.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu, C., Dutton, Z., Behroozi, C. H., and Hau, L. V. (2001). Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses. Nature 409, 490–493.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahamed, S. V. (2006). Intelligent Internet Knowledge Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sakai, Y., and Vassilicos, C. eds. (2016). Fractal Flow Design: How to Design Bespoke Turbulence and Why. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Beaty, B., and Woo, B. (2016). “A Superhero Story by Jack Kirby?,” in The Greatest Comic Book of All Time: Symbolic Capital and the Field of American Comic Books, ed. B. Woo (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US), 43–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Pharmacology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Abbott Says Australia’s Climate Target Is ‘Economically Responsible.’ IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007). Federal Family Education Loan Program: Eliminating the Exceptional Performer Designation Would Result in Substantial Savings without Adversely Affecting the Loan Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Makovec, M. G. (2008). A study of the factors predicting attrition and contributing to the attrition rate of high school teachers in Hampton Roads, Virginia.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1993). First Lady and Top Official Visit, Both Named Hillary Clinton. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Diamond, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Valadkhan and Manley, 2001; Diamond, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Valadkhan and Manley, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Gastrointestinal Pharmacology
AbbreviationFront. Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)1663-9812
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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