How to format your references using the Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kenyon, G. (2001). Major UK cancer research charities to consider merger. Nature 409, 4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Léopold, P., and Layalle, S. (2006). Development biology. Linking nutrition and tissue growth. Science 312, 1317–1318.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peng, L., Song, Z.-G., and Jiao, S.-C. (2014). Efficacy analysis of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on rare non-small cell lung cancer patients harboring complex EGFR mutations. Sci. Rep. 4, 6104.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Beaumont, C., Jamieson, R. A., Nguyen, M. H., and Lee, B. (2001). Himalayan tectonics explained by extrusion of a low-viscosity crustal channel coupled to focused surface denudation. Nature 414, 738–742.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhu, F. X. X., Hoehn, R., Thakkar, V., and Yuh, E. (2017). Hydroprocessing for Clean Energy. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
D’Août, K., and Vereecke, E. E. eds. (2011). Primate Locomotion: Linking Field and Laboratory Research. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jakhu, R. S., and Pelton, J. N. (2014). “The Global Legal Guidelines Governing Satellite Deployment,” in Small Satellites and Their Regulation SpringerBriefs in Space Development., ed. J. N. Pelton (New York, NY: Springer), 43–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Pharmacology.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015). Teeny Tiny Snail Could Fit In A Needle’s Eye 10 Times. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012). Information Technology: Agencies Need to Strengthen Oversight of Billions of Dollars in Operations and Maintenance Investments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McKinney, S. (2008). An analysis of the influence of No Child Left Behind and Arizona Learns on middle -school principal leadership behaviors and responsibilities.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2016). Mets’ Familia Arrested in Domestic Violence Case; 2017 Status in Doubt. New York Times, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kenyon, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Kenyon, 2001; Léopold and Layalle, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Léopold and Layalle, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Beaumont et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Gastrointestinal Pharmacology
AbbreviationFront. Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)1663-9812
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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