How to format your references using the Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Godfray, H. C. J. (2002). Challenges for taxonomy. Nature 417, 17–19.
A journal article with 2 authors
Der, B. S., and Kuhlman, B. (2011). Biochemistry. From computational design to a protein that binds. Science 332, 801–802.
A journal article with 3 authors
Djuranovic, S., Nahvi, A., and Green, R. (2012). miRNA-mediated gene silencing by translational repression followed by mRNA deadenylation and decay. Science 336, 237–240.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Weisberg, J. M., Johnston, S., Koribalski, B., and Stanimirovic, S. (2005). Discovery of pulsed OH maser emission stimulated by a pulsar. Science 309, 106–110.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sugirtharajah, R. S. (2011). Exploring Postcolonial Biblical Criticism. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Erto, P. ed. (2009). Statistics for Innovation: Statistical Design of “Continuous” Product Innovation. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tehranipoor, M., Guin, U., and Forte, D. (2015). “Physical Tests for Counterfeit Detection,” in Counterfeit Integrated Circuits: Detection and Avoidance, eds. U. Guin and D. Forte (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 75–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Pharmacology.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). Artificial Intelligence Wins Almost $11,000 On Horse Bets. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993). TQM Implementation at NASA. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kirk, C. (2017). Early Maladaptive Attachment Styles and Psychological Aggression in Romantic Relationships: A Content Analysis, 2006-2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2008). Plane Crash in Central Asia Kills 68. New York Times, A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Godfray, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Godfray, 2002; Der and Kuhlman, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Der and Kuhlman, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Weisberg et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Gastrointestinal Pharmacology
AbbreviationFront. Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)1663-9812
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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