How to format your references using the Polymer Degradation and Stability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Polymer Degradation and Stability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Catania, The shocking predatory strike of the electric eel, Science. 346 (2014) 1231–1234.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Zhong, S. He, Ultrathin and lightweight microwave absorbers made of mu-near-zero metamaterials, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2083.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Palazzo, B. Ackerman, G.G. Gundersen, Cell biology: Tubulin acetylation and cell motility, Nature. 421 (2003) 230.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Watanabe, A. Suzuki, S. Minobe, T. Kawashima, K. Kameo, K. Minoshima, Y.M. Aguilar, R. Wani, H. Kawahata, K. Sowa, T. Nagai, T. Kase, Permanent El Niño during the Pliocene warm period not supported by coral evidence, Nature. 471 (2011) 209–211.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. DeMaris, Regression with Social Data: Modeling Continuous and Limited Response Variables, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2004.
An edited book
L. Marinos, I. Askoxylakis, eds., Human Aspects of Information Security, Privacy, and Trust: First International Conference, HAS 2013, Held as Part of HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Walker, M. Denton, Central Nervous System Infections, in: J.P. Adams, D. Bell, J. McKinlay (Eds.), Neurocritical Care: A Guide to Practical Management, Springer, London, 2010: pp. 43–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Polymer Degradation and Stability.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Canadians With Cystic Fibrosis Live 10 Years Longer Than Their American Counterparts, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Joint Strike Fighter: Progress Made and Challenges Remain, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.M. Shakya, Watershed-Scale Evaluation of Flood Reduction Effect of Low Impact Development Designs, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, Pension Ruling in Detroit Echoes West to California, New York Times. (2013) A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePolymer Degradation and Stability
AbbreviationPolym. Degrad. Stab.
ISSN (print)0141-3910
ScopeMechanics of Materials
Materials Chemistry
Polymers and Plastics
Condensed Matter Physics

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