How to format your references using the Polymer Degradation and Stability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Polymer Degradation and Stability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Myers, Forensics offers career opportunities for the Sherlock Holmes of the future--and the work is far from elementary, Nature. 421 (2003) 872–873.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Kriaucionis, N. Heintz, The nuclear DNA base 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is present in Purkinje neurons and the brain, Science. 324 (2009) 929–930.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Bai, Y. Zhang, J. Hao, Tuning of near-infrared luminescence of SrTiO3:Ni2+ thin films grown on piezoelectric PMN-PT via strain engineering, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5724.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. Dehnhardt, B. Mauck, W. Hanke, H. Bleckmann, Hydrodynamic trail-following in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), Science. 293 (2001) 102–104.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Block, H. Eggert, W. Kauschke, Lager im Bauwesen, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2013.
An edited book
T. Johansson, The Shipping Industry, Ocean Governance and Environmental Law in the Paradigm Shift: In Search of a Pragmatic Balance for the Arctic, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Bougares, M. Rouvier, N. Camelin, P. Deléglise, Y. Estève, An Investigation of Single-Pass ASR System Combination for Spoken Language Understanding, in: A.-H. Dediu, C. Martín-Vide, R. Mitkov, B. Truthe (Eds.), Statistical Language and Speech Processing: First International Conference, SLSP 2013, Tarragona, Spain, July 29-31, 2013. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 62–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Polymer Degradation and Stability.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Brain Cells Break Their Own DNA to Allow Memories to Form, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Medicare Computer Systems: Year 2000 Challenges Put Benefits and Services in Jeopardy, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. Zhao, Modeling, Estimation and Approximation in Structured Models, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Hamblin, Sick of Success, New York Times. (2017) SR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePolymer Degradation and Stability
AbbreviationPolym. Degrad. Stab.
ISSN (print)0141-3910
ScopeMechanics of Materials
Materials Chemistry
Polymers and Plastics
Condensed Matter Physics

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