How to format your references using the Polymer Degradation and Stability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Polymer Degradation and Stability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Wright, Perspective: Synthetic biology revives antibiotics, Nature. 509 (2014) S13.
A journal article with 2 authors
E. Karimi, R.W. Boyd, PHYSICS. Classical entanglement?, Science. 350 (2015) 1172–1173.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Reinhardt, D.K. Dowling, E.H. Morrow, Medicine. Mitochondrial replacement, evolution, and the clinic, Science. 341 (2013) 1345–1346.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.A. Pavlov, A.I. Bobrov, N.V. Malekhonova, A.V. Pirogov, A.V. Nezhdanov, Self-assembled nanocrystals discovered in Chelyabinsk meteorite, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4280.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Hagen, Industrial Catalysis, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2005.
An edited book
R. Bělohlávek, Fuzzy Equational Logic, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Bulling, S. Ghosh, R. Verbrugge, Reaching Your Goals without Spilling the Beans: Boolean Secrecy Games, in: G. Boella, E. Elkind, B.T.R. Savarimuthu, F. Dignum, M.K. Purvis (Eds.), PRIMA 2013: Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems: 16th International Conference, Dunedin, New Zealand, December 1-6, 2013. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 37–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Polymer Degradation and Stability.

Blog post
E. Andrew, California Moves to Ban Religious and Personal Vaccine Exemptions, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Status of Office of Education’s National Direct Student Loan Funds at Selected Postsecondary Education Institutions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L.R. Holloway, Synthesis and investigation of novel dinitrosyl-Iron complexes of chelated Bis-phosphine ligands: Potential nitric oxide delivery compounds, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Soble, Toshiba Auction of Chip Unit Is Slowed by Dispute With U.S. Partner, New York Times. (2017) B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePolymer Degradation and Stability
AbbreviationPolym. Degrad. Stab.
ISSN (print)0141-3910
ScopeMechanics of Materials
Materials Chemistry
Polymers and Plastics
Condensed Matter Physics

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