How to format your references using the Geological Society of America Bulletin citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geological Society of America Bulletin. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willems, P.A., 2009, The biofuels landscape through the lens of industrial chemistry: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 325, p. 707–708.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stappenbeck, T.S., and Miyoshi, H., 2009, The role of stromal stem cells in tissue regeneration and wound repair: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 324, p. 1666–1669.
A journal article with 3 authors
Isakov, S.V., Melko, R.G., and Hastings, M.B., 2012, Universal signatures of fractionalized quantum critical points: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 335, p. 193–195.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yapici, N., Kim, Y.-J., Ribeiro, C., and Dickson, B.J., 2008, A receptor that mediates the post-mating switch in Drosophila reproductive behaviour: Nature, v. 451, p. 33–37.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lindahl, D., 2008, Multi-Family Millions: Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kurbanoğlu, S., Al, U., Erdoğan, P.L., Tonta, Y., and Uçak, N. (Eds.), 2012, E-Science and Information Management: Third International Symposium on Information Management in a Changing World, IMCW 2012, Ankara, Turkey, September 19-21, 2012. Proceedings: Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, Communications in Computer and Information Science, v. 317, XIV, 183 p. 19 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Kantor, S., Albahrani, M.J., and Prakash, S., 2015, Nutrition in Neuro-ICU, in Wartenberg, K.E., Shukri, K., and Abdelhak, T. eds., Neurointensive Care: A Clinical Guide to Patient Safety, Cham, Springer International Publishing, p. 57–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geological Society of America Bulletin.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016, Mars Is Still Losing Water But Not Continuously: IFLScience, (accessed October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002, Social Security Numbers: SSNs Are Widely Used by Government and Could Be Better Protected: U.S. Government Printing Office GAO-02-691T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Panjabi, C., 2010, Real and imagined immigrant identities in the public sphere: Representations of South Asian women in literary and television media [Doctoral dissertation]: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J.B., 2017, A Year of New Heights For the Dow, Led by Boeing: New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Willems, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Stappenbeck and Miyoshi, 2009; Willems, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stappenbeck and Miyoshi, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Yapici et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeological Society of America Bulletin
AbbreviationGeol. Soc. Am. Bull.
ISSN (print)0016-7606

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