How to format your references using the Geological Society of America Bulletin citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geological Society of America Bulletin. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pollock, T.M., 2010, Materials science. Weight loss with magnesium alloys: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 328, p. 986–987.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richardson, E., and Marone, C., 2008, Geophysics. What triggers tremor? Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 319, p. 166–167.
A journal article with 3 authors
Migliari, S., Fender, R., and Méndez, M., 2002, Iron emission lines from extended x-ray jets in SS 433: reheating of atomic nuclei: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 297, p. 1673–1676.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Frischmeyer, P.A., van Hoof, A., O’Donnell, K., Guerrerio, A.L., Parker, R., and Dietz, H.C., 2002, An mRNA surveillance mechanism that eliminates transcripts lacking termination codons: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 295, p. 2258–2261.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mowlaee, P., Kulmer, J., Stahl, J., and Mayer, F., 2017, Single Channel Phase-Aware Signal Processing in Speech Communication: Theory and Practice: Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zumbo, B.D., and Chan, E.K.H. (Eds.), 2014, Validity and Validation in Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences: Cham, Springer International Publishing, Social Indicators Research Series, v. 54, XV, 327 p. 15 illus., 2 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Jónsson, Á., and Sigurgeirsson, H., 2016, Day Zero, in Sigurgeirsson, H. ed., The Icelandic Financial Crisis: A Study into the World´s Smallest Currency Area and its Recovery from Total Banking Collapse, London, Palgrave Macmillan UK, p. 103–138.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geological Society of America Bulletin.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015, Japan Is Going To The Moon! IFLScience, (accessed October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992, FAA Budget: Key Issues Need to Be Addressed: U.S. Government Printing Office T-RCED-92-67.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taylor, C., 2011, The Crowd [Doctoral dissertation]: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ewing, J., Tabuchi, H., and Protess, B., 2017, Volkswagen Said to Be Near Deal With U.S. in Diesel Case: New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pollock, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Richardson and Marone, 2008; Pollock, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Richardson and Marone, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Frischmeyer et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeological Society of America Bulletin
AbbreviationGeol. Soc. Am. Bull.
ISSN (print)0016-7606

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