How to format your references using the Geological Society of America Bulletin citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geological Society of America Bulletin. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mulder, B., 2008, Developmental biology. On growth and force: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 322, p. 1643–1644.
A journal article with 2 authors
Henney, A., and Superti-Furga, G., 2008, A network solution: Nature, v. 455, p. 730–731.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, L.H., Yang, H., and Bigras, G., 2014, Current breast cancer proliferative markers correlate variably based on decoupled duration of cell cycle phases: Scientific reports, v. 4, p. 5122.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhang, L., Er, J.C., Ghosh, K.K., Chung, W.J., Yoo, J., Xu, W., Zhao, W., Phan, A.T., and Chang, Y.-T., 2014, Discovery of a structural-element specific G-quadruplex “light-up” probe: Scientific reports, v. 4, p. 3776.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tardu, S., 2011, Statistical Approach to Wall Turbulence: Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
El-Alfy, E.-S.M., Thampi, S.M., Takagi, H., Piramuthu, S., and Hanne, T. (Eds.), 2015, Advances in Intelligent Informatics: Cham, Springer International Publishing, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, v. 320, XXIV, 666 p. 296 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Engebrigtsen, A.I., 2016, Lost Between Protective Regimes: Roma in the Norwegian State, in Seeberg, M.L. and Goździak, E.M. eds., Contested Childhoods: Growing up in Migrancy: Migration, Governance, Identities, Cham, Springer International Publishing, IMISCOE Research Series, p. 81–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geological Society of America Bulletin.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014, Newly discovered gassy exoplanet has Earth-like mass: IFLScience,.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2012, Information Technology Cost Estimation: Agencies Need to Address Significant Weaknesses in Policies and Practices: U.S. Government Printing Office GAO-12-629.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ellerbrock, G., 2017, Intergenerational Ontology & Leadership: Uniting the Multigenerational Workforce [Doctoral dissertation]: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2002, Judges Catch Up, With Some Cramming: New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mulder, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Henney and Superti-Furga, 2008; Mulder, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Henney and Superti-Furga, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeological Society of America Bulletin
AbbreviationGeol. Soc. Am. Bull.
ISSN (print)0016-7606

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