How to format your references using the Politics, Groups, and Identities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Politics, Groups, and Identities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pegrum, Colin M. 2006. “Applied Physics. Can a Fraction of a Quantum Be Better than a Whole One?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5779): 1483–1484.
A journal article with 2 authors
Valadkhan, S., and J. L. Manley. 2001. “Splicing-Related Catalysis by Protein-Free SnRNAs.” Nature 413 (6857): 701–707.
A journal article with 3 authors
Culley, Alexander I., Andrew S. Lang, and Curtis A. Suttle. 2003. “High Diversity of Unknown Picorna-like Viruses in the Sea.” Nature 424 (6952): 1054–1057.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mainprice, David, Andréa Tommasi, Hélène Couvy, Patrick Cordier, and Daniel J. Frost. 2005. “Pressure Sensitivity of Olivine Slip Systems and Seismic Anisotropy of Earth’s Upper Mantle.” Nature 433 (7027): 731–733.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smed, Jouni, and Harri Hakonen. 2017. Algorithms and Networking for Computer Games. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Pohl, Göran. 2015. Biomimetics for Architecture & Design: Nature - Analogies - Technology. Edited by Werner Nachtigall. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim, Kiyoung, Jonghee Park, and Woontack Woo. 2009. “Marker-Less Tracking for Multi-Layer Authoring in AR Books.” In Entertainment Computing – ICEC 2009: 8th International Conference, Paris, France, September 3-5, 2009. Proceedings, edited by Stéphane Natkin and Jérôme Dupire, 48–59. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Politics, Groups, and Identities.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2016. “One Hundred Years On: The Science Of The Somme.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Computer Security: Hackers Penetrate DOD Computer Systems. T-IMTEC-92-5. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zakharov, Dmitry. 2010. “The Discrete Dirac Operator and the Discrete Generalized Weierstrass Representation in Pseudo-Euclidean Spaces.” Doctoral dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, Linda F. 2006. “Mutiny in the Harbor: One Ship Too Many.” New York Times, June 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pegrum 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Pegrum 2006; Valadkhan and Manley 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Valadkhan and Manley 2001)
  • Three authors: (Culley, Lang, and Suttle 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Mainprice et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolitics, Groups, and Identities
AbbreviationPolit. Groups Identities
ISSN (print)2156-5503
ISSN (online)2156-5511

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