How to format your references using the Politics, Groups, and Identities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Politics, Groups, and Identities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yeomans, D. 2000. “Small Bodies of the Solar System.” Nature 404 (6780): 829–832.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tikhonov, Vladimir I., and Alexander A. Volkov. 2002. “Separation of Water into Its Ortho and Para Isomers.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5577): 2363.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morais-Cabral, J. H., Y. Zhou, and R. MacKinnon. 2001. “Energetic Optimization of Ion Conduction Rate by the K+ Selectivity Filter.” Nature 414 (6859): 37–42.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhou, Yungang, Sean Li, Weilie Zhou, Xiaotao Zu, and Fei Gao. 2014. “Evidencing the Existence of Intrinsic Half-Metallicity and Ferromagnetism in Zigzag Gallium Sulfide Nanoribbons.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5773.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moeller, Robert R. 2013. Executive’s Guide to IT Governance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gasparini, Giampietro, and Daniel F. Hayes, eds. 2006. Biomarkers in Breast Cancer: Molecular Diagnostics for Predicting and Monitoring Therapeutic Effect. Cancer Drug Discovery and Development. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Piaia, Gregorio. 2011. “The General Histories of Philosophy in Italy in the Late Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Century.” In Models of the History of Philosophy: Volume II: From Cartesian Age to Brucker, edited by Giovanni Santinello and Gregorio Piaia, 213–297. International Archives of the History of Ideas / Archives Internationales d’histoire Des Idées. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Politics, Groups, and Identities.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Bats Upside Down Look Like Breakdancers.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Medicaid Information Technology: CMS Supports Use of Program Integrity Systems but Should Require States to Determine Effectiveness. GAO-15-207. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zimmerman, Timothy F. 2010. “A Descriptive Review of the Development and Implementation of a Funding Model for the Kentucky Community and Technical College System: The First 10 Years, 1998–2008.” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. 2017. “Extra Innings and Late-Game Twists.” New York Times, October 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yeomans 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Yeomans 2000; Tikhonov and Volkov 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tikhonov and Volkov 2002)
  • Three authors: (Morais-Cabral, Zhou, and MacKinnon 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zhou et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolitics, Groups, and Identities
AbbreviationPolit. Groups Identities
ISSN (print)2156-5503
ISSN (online)2156-5511

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