How to format your references using the Politics, Groups, and Identities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Politics, Groups, and Identities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ory, Jeramia. 2004. “Scientists and Societies. Two-Body Problem.” Nature 429 (6993): 788.
A journal article with 2 authors
García-Bellido, Diego C., and Desmond H. Collins. 2004. “Moulting Arthropod Caught in the Act.” Nature 429 (6987): 40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Winkler, Wade, Ali Nahvi, and Ronald R. Breaker. 2002. “Thiamine Derivatives Bind Messenger RNAs Directly to Regulate Bacterial Gene Expression.” Nature 419 (6910): 952–956.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, Xiaoyong, Xiaofan Ren, Keith Kahen, Megan A. Hahn, Manju Rajeswaran, Sara Maccagnano-Zacher, John Silcox, George E. Cragg, Alexander L. Efros, and Todd D. Krauss. 2009. “Non-Blinking Semiconductor Nanocrystals.” Nature 459 (7247): 686–689.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Plumb, John A., and Larry A. Hanson. 2010. Health Maintenance and Principal Microbial Diseases of Cultured Fishes. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Calcagnini, Giorgio, and Enrico Saltari, eds. 2009. The Economics of Imperfect Markets: The Effects of Market Imperfections on Economic Decision-Making. Contributions to Economics. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, Dake, Anders Nilsson, and Eric Tell. 2006. “PROGRAMMABLE BASEBAND PROCESSORS.” In Radio Design in Nanometer Technologies, edited by Mohammed Ismail and Delia Rodríguez D. E. Llera González, 83–100. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Politics, Groups, and Identities.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2016. “Eating Real Meat Without Killing Animals Could Be A Reality.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. IRS Management: Business and Systems Modernization Pose Challenges. T-GGD/AIMD-99-138. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Farhad, Keyvan. 2015. “Development of a Web-Based Educational Resource on the Most Effective Micronutrients in the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2001. “Singed From the Attack, Trees Find a Safer Home.” New York Times, November 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ory 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Ory 2004; García-Bellido and Collins 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (García-Bellido and Collins 2004)
  • Three authors: (Winkler, Nahvi, and Breaker 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolitics, Groups, and Identities
AbbreviationPolit. Groups Identities
ISSN (print)2156-5503
ISSN (online)2156-5511

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