How to format your references using the Politics, Groups, and Identities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Politics, Groups, and Identities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Warren, W. S. 2001. “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Multidimensional Symmetry in a Three-Dimensional World.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5546): 1475–1476.
A journal article with 2 authors
Woolhouse, Mark E. J., and Melissa J. Ward. 2013. “Microbiology. Sources of Antimicrobial Resistance.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 341 (6153): 1460–1461.
A journal article with 3 authors
Furuya, Takeru, Adam S. Kamlet, and Tobias Ritter. 2011. “Catalysis for Fluorination and Trifluoromethylation.” Nature 473 (7348): 470–477.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Salamat, Ashkan, Malek Deifallah, Raul Quesada Cabrera, Furio Corà, and Paul F. McMillan. 2013. “Identification of New Pillared-Layered Carbon Nitride Materials at High Pressure.” Scientific Reports 3: 2122.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Corten, Rense. 2014. Computational Approaches to Studying the Co-Evolution of Networks and Behavior in Social Dilemmas. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kim, Tai-Hoon, Hojjat Adeli, Carlos Ramos, and Byeong-Ho Kang, eds. 2011. Signal Processing, Image Processing and Pattern Recognition: International Conference, SIP 2011, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference FGIT 2011, in Conjunction with GDC 2011, Jeju Island, Korea, December 8-10, 2011. Proceedings. Vol. 260. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Günther, Edeltraud, and Susann Kaulich. 2006. “Measuring Environmental Performance with EPM-KOMPAS Software Tool — Material Flow Analyses, Environmental Assessment and Success Control.” In Material Flow Management: Improving Cost Efficiency and Environmental Performance, edited by Bernd Wagner and Stefan Enzler, 57–90. Sustainability and Innovation. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Politics, Groups, and Identities.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “How to Read and Understand a Scientific Paper: A Guide for Non-Scientists.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1981. Stronger Actions Needed To Recover $730 Million in Defaulted National Direct Student Loans. HRD-81-124. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mishne, Jenith. 2012. “An Investigation of the Relationships between Technology Use and Teachers’ Self-Efficacy, Knowledge and Experience.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hennessey, Susan. 2017. “Did Trump Violate His Oath of Office?” New York Times, May 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Warren 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Warren 2001; Woolhouse and Ward 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Woolhouse and Ward 2013)
  • Three authors: (Furuya, Kamlet, and Ritter 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Salamat et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolitics, Groups, and Identities
AbbreviationPolit. Groups Identities
ISSN (print)2156-5503
ISSN (online)2156-5511

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