How to format your references using the Politics, Groups, and Identities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Politics, Groups, and Identities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vogel, G. 2000. “LABORATORY ANIMALS: Congress OKs Plan for Retired Chimps.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 290 (5500): 2233a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Charness, Gary, and Ernst Fehr. 2015. “ECONOMICS. From the Lab to the Real World.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 350 (6260): 512–513.
A journal article with 3 authors
Watts, Duncan J., Peter Sheridan Dodds, and M. E. J. Newman. 2002. “Identity and Search in Social Networks.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5571): 1302–1305.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Saito, Takeshi, David M. Owen, Fuguo Jiang, Joseph Marcotrigiano, and Michael Gale Jr. 2008. “Innate Immunity Induced by Composition-Dependent RIG-I Recognition of Hepatitis C Virus RNA.” Nature 454 (7203): 523–527.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Swatton, P. J. 2010. Principles of Flight for Pilots. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Baloian, Nelson, Frada Burstein, Hiroaki Ogata, Flavia Santoro, and Gustavo Zurita, eds. 2014. Collaboration and Technology: 20th International Conference, CRIWG 2014, Santiago, Chile, September 7-10, 2014. Proceedings. Vol. 8658. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Mason, Helen D., Nafi Dilaver, and Suman Rice. 2014. “Ovarian Dysfunction in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.” In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Current and Emerging Concepts, edited by Lubna Pal, 53–70. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Politics, Groups, and Identities.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2015. “Scientists Produce The Most Detailed Simulation Of The Universe Yet.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Student Loan Programs: Lower Interest Rates and Higher Loan Volume Have Increased Federal Consolidation Loan Costs. GAO-04-568T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estrada Marroquin, Erica M. 2013. “Using Support Groups to Help Kinship Caregivers Transition Youth to Safe and Productive Community Living: A Grant Proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly. 2006. “Warming Up to Sausage and Dogs.” New York Times, July 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vogel 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Vogel 2000; Charness and Fehr 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Charness and Fehr 2015)
  • Three authors: (Watts, Dodds, and Newman 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Saito et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolitics, Groups, and Identities
AbbreviationPolit. Groups Identities
ISSN (print)2156-5503
ISSN (online)2156-5511

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