How to format your references using the Politics, Groups, and Identities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Politics, Groups, and Identities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gibson, Mcguire. 2003. “Conservation. Fate of Iraqi Archaeology.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5614): 1848–1849.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kroymann, Juergen, and Thomas Mitchell-Olds. 2005. “Epistasis and Balanced Polymorphism Influencing Complex Trait Variation.” Nature 435 (7038): 95–98.
A journal article with 3 authors
Larson, Kristine M., Paul Bodin, and Joan Gomberg. 2003. “Using 1-Hz GPS Data to Measure Deformations Caused by the Denali Fault Earthquake.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300 (5624): 1421–1424.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Langdon, Erin M., Yupeng Qiu, Amirhossein Ghanbari Niaki, Grace A. McLaughlin, Chase A. Weidmann, Therese M. Gerbich, Jean A. Smith, et al. 2018. “MRNA Structure Determines Specificity of a PolyQ-Driven Phase Separation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 360 (6391): 922–927.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu, Jian, Xinzhou Dong, Xingying Chen, Xiangqian Tong, Xiaoqing Zhang, and Shiming Xu. 2016. Fault Location and Service Restoration for Electrical Distribution Systems. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Battistella, Graziano, ed. 2014. Global and Asian Perspectives on International Migration. Vol. 4. Global Migration Issues. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Varekamp, Johan C. 2015. “The Chemical Composition and Evolution of Volcanic Lakes.” In Volcanic Lakes, edited by Dmitri Rouwet, Bruce Christenson, Franco Tassi, and Jean Vandemeulebrouck, 93–123. Advances in Volcanology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Politics, Groups, and Identities.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Frances Kelsey, Doctor Who Saved The U.S. From Thalidomide, Dies At 101.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Interstate Commerce Commission: Key Issues Need to Be Addressed in Determining Future of ICC’s Regulatory Functions. T-RCED-94-261. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nuno, Zachary Sebastian. 2012. “Visible and Mid-Infrared Optical Studies of Plasmon and Phonon Resonant Nanoparticles Using Apertureless near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, Ben. 2017. “Is It Time for a New Prince Moment?” New York Times, January 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gibson 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Gibson 2003; Kroymann and Mitchell-Olds 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kroymann and Mitchell-Olds 2005)
  • Three authors: (Larson, Bodin, and Gomberg 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Langdon et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolitics, Groups, and Identities
AbbreviationPolit. Groups Identities
ISSN (print)2156-5503
ISSN (online)2156-5511

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