How to format your references using the Political Geography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Political Geography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blencowe, M. (2007). Applied physics. How to strum a nanobar. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5839), 762–763.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pisharody, S. N., & Jones, R. R. (2004). Probing two-electron dynamics of an atom. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5659), 813–815.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ma, J., Wollmann, R., & Lindquist, S. (2002). Neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration when PrP accumulates in the cytosol. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5599), 1781–1785.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
He, G. S., Markowicz, P. P., Lin, T.-C., & Prasad, P. N. (2002). Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation. Nature, 415(6873), 767–770.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooney, N. (2015). How to Be Great at Doing Good. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Futral, W. (2013). Intel® Trusted Execution Technology for Server Platforms: A Guide to More Secure Datacenters (J. Greene, Ed.). Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Joardder, M. U. H., Karim, A., Kumar, C., & Brown, R. J. (2016). Effect of Porosity on Drying Kinetics and Food Properties. In A. Karim, C. Kumar, & R. J. Brown (Eds.), Porosity: Establishing the Relationship between Drying Parameters and Dried Food Quality (pp. 47–64). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Political Geography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 10). Cutting Emissions Through Biofuels Will Lead To Water Shortages – Study. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). VA Student Financial Aid: Opportunity to Reduce Overlap in Approving Education and Training Programs (HEHS-96-22). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramirez, B. N. (2012). Middle School English Language Learner Electronic Media Usage and Its Relationship to Reading [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cave, D., & Kwai, I. (2017, May 27). Drug Trafficker and Australian Obsession Returns Home. New York Times, A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blencowe, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Blencowe, 2007; Pisharody & Jones, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pisharody & Jones, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Ma et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (He et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolitical Geography
AbbreviationPolit. Geogr.
ISSN (print)0962-6298
Geography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science

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