How to format your references using the Political Geography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Political Geography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Jong, T. (2006). Computer simulations. Technological advances in inquiry learning. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5773), 532–533.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bourne, H. R., & Weiner, O. (2002). A chemical compass. Nature, 419(6902), 21.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuba, H., Oichi, Y., & Ohmori, H. (2010). Presynaptic activity regulates Na(+) channel distribution at the axon initial segment. Nature, 465(7301), 1075–1078.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lam, S. K., Chen, D., Mosier, A. R., & Roush, R. (2013). The potential for carbon sequestration in Australian agricultural soils is technically and economically limited. Scientific Reports, 3, 2179.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tms. (2014). TMS 2014 Supplemental Proceedings. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hibbert, K. M., Chhem, R. K., Deven, T. van, & Wang, S.-C. (Eds.). (2012). Radiology Education: The Evaluation and Assessment of Clinical Competence. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Martinez-Duarte, R., Teixidor, G. T., Mukherjee, P. P., Kang, Q., & Madou, M. J. (2010). Perspectives of Micro and Nanofabrication of Carbon for Electrochemical and Microfluidic Applications. In S. Chakraborty (Ed.), Microfluidics and Microfabrication (pp. 181–263). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Political Geography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 11). Why We’ll All Learn To Love Genetically Modified Salmonella In The End. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). School Nutrition: USDA Has Efforts Underway to Help Address Ongoing Challenges Implementing Changes in Nutrition Standards (GAO-15-656). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vlajic, N. A. (2014). Dynamics of slender, flexible structures [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2001, June 3). For New Trump Neighbors, Proximity Breeds Discontent. New York Times, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Jong, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Bourne & Weiner, 2002; de Jong, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bourne & Weiner, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Kuba et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lam et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolitical Geography
AbbreviationPolit. Geogr.
ISSN (print)0962-6298
Geography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science

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