How to format your references using the Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Richmond, B.: Neuroscience. Information coding, Science, 294, 2493–2494, 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, M. S. and Cho, J.: Physics. Teleporting a quantum state to distant matter, Science, 323, 469–470, 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song, J., Ji, C., and Zhang, J. Z. H.: Unveiling the gating mechanism of ECF transporter RibU, Sci. Rep., 3, 3566, 2013.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Meylan, E., Curran, J., Hofmann, K., Moradpour, D., Binder, M., Bartenschlager, R., and Tschopp, J.: Cardif is an adaptor protein in the RIG-I antiviral pathway and is targeted by hepatitis C virus, Nature, 437, 1167–1172, 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Staudt, G.: Experimentalphysik, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2001.
An edited book
Meheus, J. and Nickles, T. (Eds.): Models of Discovery and Creativity, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, X, 249 p pp., 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
O’Connell, D. C. and Kowal, S.: The Written, in: Communicating with One Another: Toward a Psychology of Spontaneous Spoken Discourse, edited by: Kowal, S., Springer, New York, NY, 1–9, 2008.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions.

Blog post
Higgs Boson Seen At Work For The First Time:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: New Computer Was Not Needed for the St. Louis Computer Center, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kaplan, C. M.: Understanding the Anxiolytic Effects of Alcohol on the Central Extended Amygdala in Humans, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kleiman, K.: Change Sweeps Through Black Theater in Chicago, New York Times, 8th July, A19B, 2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Richmond, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Richmond, 2001; Kim and Cho, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and Cho, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Meylan et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleDrinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions
AbbreviationDrink. Water Eng. Sci. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1996-9481

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