How to format your references using the Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McKeon, B. J.: Applied physics. Controlling turbulence, Science, 327(5972), 1462–1463, 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sharon, I. and Banfield, J. F.: Microbiology. Genomes from metagenomics, Science, 342(6162), 1057–1058, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
Irigoien, X., Huisman, J. and Harris, R. P.: Global biodiversity patterns of marine phytoplankton and zooplankton, Nature, 429(6994), 863–867, 2004.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Koutavas, A., Lynch-Stieglitz, J., Marchitto, T. M., Jr and Sachs, J. P.: El Niño-like pattern in ice age tropical Pacific sea surface temperature, Science, 297(5579), 226–230, 2002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allen, D. S.: Why Plato Wrote, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK., 2012.
An edited book
Jacob, B. P. and Ramshaw, B., Eds.: The SAGES Manual of Hernia Repair, Springer, New York, NY., 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Fan, X. J., Tee, T. Y., Shi, X. Q. and Xie, B.: Modeling of Moisture Diffusion and Whole-Field Vapor Pressure in Plastic Packages of IC Devices, in Moisture Sensitivity of Plastic Packages of IC Devices, edited by X. J. Fan and E. Suhir, pp. 91–112, Springer US, Boston, MA., 2010.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions.

Blog post
Hamilton, K.: City Center Seagulls Could Help Plan Drone Flight Paths, IFLScience, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Procedures for Updating Arbitrator Disclosure Information, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adrian, D. E.: School scheduling models and the achievement of at-risk students: A causal-comparative study, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ., 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B.: An Intergalactic Odyssey via Puppets, Puns and Knock-Knock Jokes, New York Times, 12th September, C2, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McKeon, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (McKeon, 2010; Sharon and Banfield, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sharon and Banfield, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Koutavas et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleDrinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions
AbbreviationDrink. Water Eng. Sci. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1996-9481

Other styles