How to format your references using the Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schwamb, M. E.: Solar System: Stranded in no-man’s-land, Nature, 507, 435–436, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ims, R. A. and Andreassen, H. P.: Spatial synchronization of vole population dynamics by predatory birds, Nature, 408, 194–196, 2000.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alben, S., Shelley, M., and Zhang, J.: Drag reduction through self-similar bending of a flexible body, Nature, 420, 479–481, 2002.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Lu, X., Wu, Z., Zhang, W., and Chen, L.: Polarization singularities and orbital angular momentum sidebands from rotational symmetry broken by the Pockels effect, Sci. Rep., 4, 4865, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Choi, N.-E. and Han, J. H.: How Flavor Works, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
Adelsberger, H. H., Kinshuk, Pawlowski, J. M., and Sampson, D. G. (Eds.): Handbook on Information Technologies for Education and Training, 2nd ed., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XXVIII, 465 p pp., 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Ahmadi, R. and Newby, M.: A New Approach to Maintenance Optimization by Modeling Intensity Control, in: Mathematical and Statistical Models and Methods in Reliability: Applications to Medicine, Finance, and Quality Control, edited by: Rykov, V. V., Balakrishnan, N., and Nikulin, M. S., Birkhäuser, Boston, MA, 69–85, 2010.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions.

Blog post
Tasmanian Devil Milk May Be A Source Of New Antibiotics:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Space Research: Content and Coordination of Space Science and Technology Strategy Need to Be More Robust, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gustus, C. H.: E-Mentoring an Educator in a State School for the Deaf: An Action Research Study, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmitt, E.: U.S. Says Its ISIS Fight Isn’t Raising Civilian Risks, New York Times, 20th May, A5, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schwamb, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Schwamb, 2014; Ims and Andreassen, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ims and Andreassen, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Lu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDrinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions
AbbreviationDrink. Water Eng. Sci. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1996-9481

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