How to format your references using the Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Herzfeld, C.: How the change agent has changed, Nature, 451, 403–404, 2008.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matear, R. J. and McNeil, B. I.: Comment on “Preindustrial to modern interdecadal variability in coral reef pH,” Science, 314, 595, 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barrett, R. D. H., Rogers, S. M., and Schluter, D.: Natural selection on a major armor gene in threespine stickleback, Science, 322, 255–257, 2008.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Chawla, A., Repa, J. J., Evans, R. M., and Mangelsdorf, D. J.: Nuclear receptors and lipid physiology: opening the X-files, Science, 294, 1866–1870, 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gleeson, K.: The Personal Efficiency Program, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2008.
An edited book
Zhao, Y.: Multi-band Polarization Imaging and Applications, 1st ed. 2016., edited by: Yi, C., Kong, S. G., Pan, Q., and Cheng, Y., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, X, 194 p. 112 illus., 35 illus. in color pp., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, J. C., DeAngelis, D. L., and Zhuang, J. Y.: GIS-Based ER-USLE Model to Predict Soil Loss in Cultivated Land, in: Theory and Practice of Soil Loss Control in Eastern China, edited by: DeAngelis, D. L. and Zhuang, J. Y., Springer, New York, NY, 65–80, 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions.

Blog post
How We Found Out There Are Three Trillion Trees On Earth:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Electronic Health Records: HHS Strategy to Address Information Exchange Challenges Lacks Specific Prioritized Actions and Milestones, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeRose, C. T.: Electro-optic polymers: Materials and devices, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J.: Naked Mole Rats Survive Without Oxygen, New York Times, 20th April, D3, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Herzfeld, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Herzfeld, 2008; Matear and McNeil, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Matear and McNeil, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Chawla et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleDrinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions
AbbreviationDrink. Water Eng. Sci. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1996-9481

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