How to format your references using the Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tolstoy, E.: Galaxy evolution. Galactic paleontology, Science, 333(6039), 176–178, 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brüggen, M. and Kaiser, C. R.: Hot bubbles from active galactic nuclei as a heat source in cooling-flow clusters, Nature, 418(6895), 301–303, 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lohmann, C., Myhr, K. L. and Wong, R. O. L.: Transmitter-evoked local calcium release stabilizes developing dendrites, Nature, 418(6894), 177–181, 2002.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Volkova, V. V., Lu, Z., Lanzas, C., Scott, H. M. and Gröhn, Y. T.: Modelling dynamics of plasmid-gene mediated antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria using stochastic differential equations, Sci. Rep., 3, 2463, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghaye, T.: Developing the Reflective Healthcare Team, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK., 2008.
An edited book
Mavronicolas, M. and Papadopoulou, V. G., Eds.: Algorithmic Game Theory: Second International Symposium, SAGT 2009, Paphos, Cyprus, October 18-20, 2009. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
de Lara, J. and Guerra, E.: Reusable Graph Transformation Templates, in Applications of Graph Transformations with Industrial Relevance: 4th International Symposium, AGTIVE 2011, Budapest, Hungary, October 4-7, 2011, Revised Selected and Invited Papers, edited by A. Schürr, D. Varró, and G. Varró, pp. 35–50, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Studies Supporting Use of Medical Marijuana are Mostly Poor Quality, Researchers Find, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: EPA: Final Regulations for Revisions to the Federal Test Procedure for Emissions from Motor Vehicles, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Uzoff, P. P.: Virtual school teacher’s science efficacy beliefs: The effects of community of practice on science-teaching efficacy beliefs, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA., 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C.: A Fresh Discovery, Three Decades in the Making, New York Times, 8th April, A23B, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tolstoy, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Brüggen and Kaiser, 2002; Tolstoy, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brüggen and Kaiser, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Volkova et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleDrinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions
AbbreviationDrink. Water Eng. Sci. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1996-9481

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