How to format your references using the Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Amaratunga, G. A. J.: Applied physics. A dawn for carbon electronics?, Science, 297, 1657–1658, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Galiana, I. and Green, C.: Let the global technology race begin, Nature, 462, 570–571, 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kawase, H., Okata, Y., and Ito, K.: Role of huge geometric circular structures in the reproduction of a marine pufferfish, Sci. Rep., 3, 2106, 2013.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Stellamanns, E., Uppaluri, S., Hochstetter, A., Heddergott, N., Engstler, M., and Pfohl, T.: Optical trapping reveals propulsion forces, power generation and motility efficiency of the unicellular parasites Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Sci. Rep., 4, 6515, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Seifert, R. J.: Profiting from Weekly Options, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
Montón-Subías, S., Cruz Berrocal, M., and Ruiz Martínez, A. (Eds.): Archaeologies of Early Modern Spanish Colonialism, 1st ed. 2016., Springer International Publishing, Cham, XII, 302 p. 83 illus., 52 illus. in color pp., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Amerio, L.: Almost-Periodic Equations in Hilbert Spaces, in: Equazioni differenziali astratte, edited by: Amerio, L., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 223–239, 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions.

Blog post
9 Science-Backed Studying Tips:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Highlights of a Forum: Financial Literacy: The Role of the Workplace, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhao, J.: Contextual Differential Item Functioning: Examining the Validity of Teaching Self-Efficacy Instruments Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kovaleski, S. F. and Alter, A.: Intrigue Grows Over New Book by Harper Lee, New York Times, 2nd July, A1, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Amaratunga, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Amaratunga, 2002; Galiana and Green, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Galiana and Green, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Stellamanns et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDrinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions
AbbreviationDrink. Water Eng. Sci. Discuss.
ISSN (online)1996-9481

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