How to format your references using the Political Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Political Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adams, J. (2013). Collaborations: The fourth age of research. Nature, 497(7451), 557–560.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson, M. J., & Dixson, A. F. (2002). Sperm competition: motility and the midpiece in primates. Nature, 416(6880), 496.
A journal article with 3 authors
Paraschiv-Ionescu, A., Buchser, E., & Aminian, K. (2013). Unraveling dynamics of human physical activity patterns in chronic pain conditions. Scientific reports, 3, 2019.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Li, J., Bursten, B. E., Liang, B., & Andrews, L. (2002). Noble gas-actinide compounds: complexation of the CUO molecule by Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms in noble gas matrices. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5563), 2242–2245.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Molino Sr., L. N. (2006). Emergency Incident Management Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Flandre, D., Nazarov, A. N., & Hemment, P. L. F. (Eds.). (2005). Science and Technology of Semiconductor-On-Insulator Structures and Devices Operating in a Harsh Environment: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Science and Technology of Semiconductor-On-Insulator Structures and Devices Operating in a Harsh Environment Kiev, Ukraine 26–30 April 2004 (Vol. 185). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramaekers, S., & Suissa, J. (2012). Rights, Needs and Duties. In J. Suissa (Ed.), The Claims of Parenting: Reasons, Responsibility and Society (pp. 99–123). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Political Behavior.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, March 19). If A Nuclear Bomb Is Dropped On Your City, Here’s Where You Should Run And Hide. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Space Shuttle: NASA’s Major Changes to Flight Hardware (No. NSIAD-88-173FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Freund, S. H. (2013). The Relationship of Academic Courses to Skills Required Of Automobile Repair Technicians (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adams 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Adams 2013; Anderson and Dixson 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Anderson and Dixson 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolitical Behavior
AbbreviationPolit. Behav.
ISSN (print)0190-9320
ISSN (online)1573-6687
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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