How to format your references using the Political Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Political Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blakely, R. D. (2001). Neurobiology. Dopamine’s reversal of fortune. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5539), 2407–2409.
A journal article with 2 authors
Friedman, J. S., & Walter, M. A. (2002). Biomedicine. Under pressure. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5557), 983–984.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith, T. M., Karl, T. R., & Reynolds, R. W. (2002). Climate modeling. How accurate are climate simulations? Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5567), 483–484.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Barends, T. R. M., Hartmann, E., Griese, J. J., Beitlich, T., Kirienko, N. V., Ryjenkov, D. A., et al. (2009). Structure and mechanism of a bacterial light-regulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. Nature, 459(7249), 1015–1018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tian, J. (2005). Software Quality Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Khan, M. G. (2005). Heart Disease Diagnosis and Therapy: A Practical Approach. (H. J. L. Marriott, Ed.) (Second Edition.). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Wade, W. G. (2007). Characterisation of the human oral microbiome and metagenome. In M. Watanabe, O. Okuno, K. Sasaki, N. Takahashi, O. Suzuki, & H. Takada (Eds.), Interface Oral Health Science 2007: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium for Interface Oral Health Science, Held in Sendai, Japan, Between 18 and 19 February, 2007 (pp. 43–51). Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Political Behavior.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2015, April 1). The Brain’s Gender May Be More Flexible Than Previously Thought. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Protest Alleging Agency Refused To Consider Bid (No. B-178984). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hsueh, T. (2012). ENV9, a novel gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is responsible for the pleiotropic phenotype of env9Δ and encodes a membrane protein that is localized to lipid droplets (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2007, July 29). In a Word, Fabulous. New York Times, p. NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blakely 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Blakely 2001; Friedman and Walter 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Friedman and Walter 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Barends et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolitical Behavior
AbbreviationPolit. Behav.
ISSN (print)0190-9320
ISSN (online)1573-6687
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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