How to format your references using the Political Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Political Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kendall, K. (2000). Hydrocarbon fuels. Hopes for a flame-free future. Nature, 404(6775), 233, 235.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mittermaier, A., & Kay, L. E. (2006). New tools provide new insights in NMR studies of protein dynamics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5771), 224–228.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pagel, M., Atkinson, Q. D., & Meade, A. (2007). Frequency of word-use predicts rates of lexical evolution throughout Indo-European history. Nature, 449(7163), 717–720.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Liu, T., Guo, P., Zhou, Y., Wang, J., Chen, L., Yang, H., et al. (2014). A crystal structure-guided rational design switching non-carbohydrate inhibitors’ specificity between two β-GlcNAcase homologs. Scientific reports, 4, 6188.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mang, T., Bobzin, K., & Bartels, T. (2010). Industrial Tribology. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Borchers, H.-J. (2006). Mathematical Implications of Einstein-Weyl Causality. (R. N. Sen, Ed.) (Vol. 709). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, H., Liu, Z., & Zuo, M. (2012). Experimental Study on Sand Intercepting Process of Arbor Vegetation in Interlaced Zone of Desert and Oasis in Region of Arakan. In W. Deng (Ed.), Future Control and Automation: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation (ICFCA 2012) - Volume 1 (pp. 27–35). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Political Behavior.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, February 24). What The Fresh Hell Is This Gigantic Furry Blob? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). NASA Procurement Assessments (No. NSIAD-97-80R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wright, J. L. (2015). Shade Tolerance and Physiological Response to Light Regime of the Invasive Species Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle) (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, October 31). Petke Departs, Certain He Gave All That He Could. New York Times, p. SP9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kendall 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kendall 2000; Mittermaier and Kay 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mittermaier and Kay 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolitical Behavior
AbbreviationPolit. Behav.
ISSN (print)0190-9320
ISSN (online)1573-6687
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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