How to format your references using the Political Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Political Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scholz, B. C. (2002). Innateness. Nature, 415(6873), 739.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steinberger, B., & Torsvik, T. H. (2008). Absolute plate motions and true polar wander in the absence of hotspot tracks. Nature, 452(7187), 620–623.
A journal article with 3 authors
Daubin, V., Moran, N. A., & Ochman, H. (2003). Phylogenetics and the cohesion of bacterial genomes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5634), 829–832.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Shi, Y., Wang, Y., Wong, J. I., Tan, A. Y. S., Hsu, C.-L., Li, L.-J., et al. (2013). Self-assembly of hierarchical MoSx/CNT nanocomposites (2<x<3): towards high performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Scientific reports, 3, 2169.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gray, K. A., & Paschkewitz, J. J. (2016). Next Generation HALT and HASS. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bramer, M., & Petridis, M. (Eds.). (2012). Research and Development in Intelligent Systems XXIX: Incorporating Applications and Innovations in Intelligent Systems XX Proceedings of AI-2012, The Thirty-second SGAI International Conference on Innovative Techniques and Applications of Artificial Intelligence. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lu, T., & Xin, F. (2014). Sound Transmission Across Sandwich Structures with Corrugated Cores. In F. Xin (Ed.), Vibro-Acoustics of Lightweight Sandwich Structures (pp. 207–223). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Political Behavior.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, September 29). Hikers Caught In Volcanic Eruption Capture Moment On Camera. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Job Training Partnership Act: Labor Title IV Initiatives Could Improve Relations With Native Americans (No. HEHS-94-67). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moshfegh, N. (2014). The multidimensional wellbeing assessment: Preliminary validation in an Iranian sample (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kinsley, M. (2017, June 3). Nagging NATO. New York Times, p. SR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Scholz 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Scholz 2002; Steinberger and Torsvik 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Steinberger and Torsvik 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Shi et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolitical Behavior
AbbreviationPolit. Behav.
ISSN (print)0190-9320
ISSN (online)1573-6687
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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