How to format your references using the Carbon Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbon Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeWeerdt S. Bacteriology: a caring culture. Nature. 504(7480), S4-5 (2013).
A journal article with 2 authors
Weston CR, Davis RJ. Signal transduction: signaling specificity- a complex affair. Science. 292(5526), 2439–2440 (2001).
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim J, Park S-M, Cho K-H. Discovery of a kernel for controlling biomolecular regulatory networks. Sci. Rep. 3, 2223 (2013).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rusconi CP, Scardino E, Layzer J, et al. RNA aptamers as reversible antagonists of coagulation factor IXa. Nature. 419(6902), 90–94 (2002).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Higgs J, Titchen A. Professional Practice in Health, Education and the Creative Arts. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Williams PJ, Newhouse CP, editors. Digital Representations of Student Performance for Assessment. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Gerosa M, Marconi A, Pistore M, Traverso P. An Open Platform for Children’s Independent Mobility. In: Smart Cities, Green Technologies, and Intelligent Transport Systems: 4th International Conference, SMARTGREENS 2015, and 1st International Conference VEHITS 2015, Lisbon, Portugal, May 20-22, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Helfert M, Krempels K-H, Klein C, Donellan B, Guiskhin O (Eds.), Springer International Publishing, Cham, 50–71 (2015).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbon Management.

Blog post
Evans K. Eating Real Meat Without Killing Animals Could Be A Reality [Internet]. IFLScience (2016). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Force Assessment of the Joint Strike Fighter’s Aerial Refueling Method. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kutash M. The Relationship Between Nurses’ Emotional Intelligence and Patient Outcomes. (2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Putin Reaches Out To Vatican. New York Times, A6 (2003).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbon Management
ISSN (print)1758-3004
ISSN (online)1758-3012
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science

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