How to format your references using the Carbon Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbon Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadman M. Race is on for flu vaccine. Nature. 438(7064), 23 (2005).
A journal article with 2 authors
Doebeli M, Ispolatov I. Complexity and diversity. Science. 328(5977), 494–497 (2010).
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen W, Shimada S, Tanaka M. Synthesis and structure of formally hexavalent palladium complexes. Science. 295(5553), 308–310 (2002).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Syntichaki P, Xu K, Driscoll M, Tavernarakis N. Specific aspartyl and calpain proteases are required for neurodegeneration in C. elegans. Nature. 419(6910), 939–944 (2002).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fisher HG, Forrest HS, Grossel SS, et al. Emergency Relief System Design Using DIERS Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Mick G, Guastella V, editors. Chronic Postsurgical Pain. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Daugstad K. The Participatory Dimension in Nature Conservation Processes: Examples of Ideology and Practice from Norway. In: The European Landscape Convention: Challenges of Participation. Jones M, Stenseke M (Eds.), Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 67–79 (2011).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbon Management.

Blog post
Davis J. Fluffy Little Ducklings Are Capable Of Abstract Thoughts [Internet]. IFLScience (2016). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway and Transit Investments: Flexible Funding Supports State and Local Transportation Priorities and Multimodal Planning. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chen XS. Social Support Communication Behavior, Anxiety Symptomatology, and Marital Satisfaction Among Distressed Couples. (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices, Voting 5-4, Limit the Use of Race In Integration Plans. New York Times, A1 (2007).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbon Management
ISSN (print)1758-3004
ISSN (online)1758-3012
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science

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