How to format your references using the Carbon Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbon Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yang S. Self-assembled materials. Supramolecular lattices from tetrahedral nanobuilding blocks. Science. 348(6233), 396–397 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
Brosnan SF, de Waal FBM. Evolution of responses to (un)fairness. Science. 346(6207), 1251776 (2014).
A journal article with 3 authors
Tellinghuisen TL, Marcotrigiano J, Rice CM. Structure of the zinc-binding domain of an essential component of the hepatitis C virus replicase. Nature. 435(7040), 374–379 (2005).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bull ID, Parekh NR, Hall GH, Ineson P, Evershed RP. Detection and classification of atmospheric methane oxidizing bacteria in soil. Nature. 405(6783), 175–178 (2000).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belliotti RA. Dante’s Deadly Sins. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Titus T. Pro .NET 1.1 Remoting, Reflection, and Threading. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
van Kessel T, Drost N, Seinstra FJ. User Transparent Task Parallel Multimedia Content Analysis. In: Euro-Par 2010 - Parallel Processing: 16th International Euro-Par Conference, Ischia, Italy, August 31 - September 3, 2010, Proceedings, Part II. D’Ambra P, Guarracino M, Talia D (Eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 38–50 (2010).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbon Management.

Blog post
Andrew E. Current Extinction Rate 10 Times Worse Than Previously Thought [Internet]. IFLScience (2014). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Effects of Changes in the Telecommunications Industry on FCC Operations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moncur HB. Exploring primary caregivers’ perceptions of the effects of secondhand marijuana smoke on children: A quantitative study. (2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. The Storming of Mount Salzburg. New York Times, AR8 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbon Management
ISSN (print)1758-3004
ISSN (online)1758-3012
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science

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