How to format your references using the Carbon Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbon Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bourzac K. Microbiome: the bacterial tightrope. Nature. 516(7529), S14-6 (2014).
A journal article with 2 authors
Lu X, Brelsford C. Network structure and community evolution on Twitter: human behavior change in response to the 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami. Sci. Rep. 4, 6773 (2014).
A journal article with 3 authors
Roy K, Hunt G, Jablonski D. Phylogenetic conservatism of extinctions in marine bivalves. Science. 325(5941), 733–737 (2009).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kolenderski P, Scarcella C, Johnsen KD, et al. Time-resolved double-slit interference pattern measurement with entangled photons. Sci. Rep. 4, 4685 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Calloway J. Work Like You’re Showing Off! John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Backhaus JG, editor. The Liberation of the Serfs: The Economics of Unfree Labor. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Cerejeiras P, Kähler U, Sommen F, Vajiac A. Script Geometry. In: Modern Trends in Hypercomplex Analysis. Bernstein S, Kähler U, Sabadini I, Sommen F (Eds.), Springer International Publishing, Cham, 79–110 (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbon Management.

Blog post
Luntz S. Hunter-Gatherer Societies Have Three-Tiered Social Networks [Internet]. IFLScience (2016). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Subcontract Estimates Included in Prime Contract Prices at Amphenol Space and Missile Systems Division. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cooper T. Biting Animals. (2009).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Sharapova’s Comeback to Start in Germany. New York Times, B12 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbon Management
ISSN (print)1758-3004
ISSN (online)1758-3012
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science

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