How to format your references using the Current Pain and Headache Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Pain and Headache Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Payne MR. Fisheries: climate change at the dinner table. Nature. 2013;497:320–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kokko H, López-Sepulcre A. From individual dispersal to species ranges: perspectives for a changing world. Science. 2006;313:789–91.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Santos NC, Benz W, Mayor M. Extrasolar planets: constraints for planet formation models. Science. 2005;310:251–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Haile SM, Boysen DA, Chisholm CR, Merle RB. Solid acids as fuel cell electrolytes. Nature. 2001;410:910–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Knudsen S. Cancer Diagnostics with DNA Microarrays. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Williams CG, editor. Landscapes, Genomics and Transgenic Conifers. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Zhou H, Gui L, Yu Q, Shen X. Conclusion and Future Research Directions. In: Gui L, Yu Q, Shen X (sherman), editors. Cooperative Vehicular Communications in the Drive-thru Internet. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 71–5.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Pain and Headache Reports.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. 16th-Century Church Emerges From Dam Reservoir After Drought [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/16thcentury-church-emerges-from-dam-reservoir-after-drought/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: DOE Is Providing Independent Review of the Scientific Merit of Its Research. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Apr. Report No.: RCED-00-109.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Akers K. The Impact of Work-Family Conflict, Gender, and Family-Friendly Policies on Organizational Attractiveness and Job Pursuit Intentions [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Schwartz J. Exxon’s Unlikely Enemy. New York Times. 2016 Nov 21;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Pain and Headache Reports
AbbreviationCurr. Pain Headache Rep.
ISSN (print)1531-3433
ISSN (online)1534-3081
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Clinical Neurology

Other styles