How to format your references using the Current Pain and Headache Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Pain and Headache Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Chi KR. Masculinity: Men’s makeover. Nature. 2015;526:S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Mercer JM, Roth VL. The effects of Cenozoic global change on squirrel phylogeny. Science. 2003;299:1568–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Yartsev MM, Witter MP, Ulanovsky N. Grid cells without theta oscillations in the entorhinal cortex of bats. Nature. 2011;479:103–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Foster MA, Salem R, Geraghty DF, Turner-Foster AC, Lipson M, Gaeta AL. Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope. Nature. 2008;456:81–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Schulman FY. Veterinarian’s Guide to Maximizing Biopsy Results. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Haken H. The Physics of Atoms and Quanta: Introduction to Experiments and Theory. Seventh Revised and Enlarged Edition With 300 Figures, 30 Tables, 177 Problems and Solutions. Wolf HC, Brewer WD, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. da Silva A, Lechevallier Y, de Carvalho F. Comparing Clustering on Symbolic Data. In: Nedjah N, Macedo Mourelle L de, Kacprzyk J, França FMG, De Souza AF de, editors. Intelligent Text Categorization and Clustering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 81–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Pain and Headache Reports.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Tarantula Venom Helps Reveal How We Sense Pain [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. ADP Acquisition: Air Force Logistics System Modernization Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Apr. Report No.: IMTEC-89-42.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hamilton MA. Experiences of Everyday Racism: Understanding the Racial Difference in Perceptions of Physicians’ Cultural Competence [Doctoral dissertation]. [Cincinnati, OH]: University of Cincinnati; 2003.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kenigsberg B. Film Series. New York Times. 2017 Mar 23;C22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Pain and Headache Reports
AbbreviationCurr. Pain Headache Rep.
ISSN (print)1531-3433
ISSN (online)1534-3081
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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