How to format your references using the Polish Annals of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Polish Annals of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grossniklaus U. Plant science. Paternal patterning cue. Science. 2009;323(5920):1439-1440.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cho US, Xu W. Crystal structure of a protein phosphatase 2A heterotrimeric holoenzyme. Nature. 2007;445(7123):53-57.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gómez JM, Verdú M, Perfectti F. Ecological interactions are evolutionarily conserved across the entire tree of life. Nature. 2010;465(7300):918-921.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sureshkumar S, Todesco M, Schneeberger K, Harilal R, Balasubramanian S, Weigel D. A genetic defect caused by a triplet repeat expansion in Arabidopsis thaliana. Science. 2009;323(5917):1060-1063.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chu PP. FPGA Prototyping by Verilog Examples. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Nakamura T. Urban Mining Systems. (Halada K, ed.). Springer Japan; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Leal Filho W, Kovaleva M. Methods of Food Waste Reduction. In: Kovaleva M, ed. Food Waste and Sustainable Food Waste Management in the Baltic Sea Region. Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer International Publishing; 2015:51-80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Polish Annals of Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Just How Little Do We Know About The Ocean Floor? IFLScience. Published November 6, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Critical Need for a Better System for Adjusting Top Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Salaries. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Danso Odei PK. Effective Resolution of The Bibiani-Anhwianso-Bekwai District Healthcare Delivery System: An Outcome-Based Evaluative Case. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman MM. 17-Year Sentence in Michigan Shooting. New York Times. September 4, 2014:A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePolish Annals of Medicine
AbbreviationPol. Ann. Med.
ISSN (print)1230-8013
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles