How to format your references using the Polar Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Polar Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brito, L., 2012. Analyzing sustainable development goals. Science 336, 1396.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bray, G.A., Tartaglia, L.A., 2000. Medicinal strategies in the treatment of obesity. Nature 404, 672–677.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, Y., Chen, G., Zhang, C., 2013. Tunable spin-orbit coupling and quantum phase transition in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. Sci. Rep. 3, 1937.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dubrovinsky, L.S., Dubrovinskaia, N.A., Swamy, V., Muscat, J., Harrison, N.M., Ahuja, R., Holm, B., Johansson, B., 2001. Materials science. The hardest known oxide. Nature 410, 653–654.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen, G., Wang, X., Li, X., 2014. Fundamentals of Complex Networks. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Marti, U. (Ed.), 2014. Gravity, Geoid and Height Systems: Proceedings of the IAG Symposium GGHS2012, October 9-12, 2012, Venice, Italy, International Association of Geodesy Symposia. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Kazar, B.M., Celik, M., 2012. Comparing Exact and Approximate SAR Model Solutions, in: Celik, M. (Ed.), Spatial AutoRegression (SAR) Model: Parameter Estimation Techniques, SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 35–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Polar Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Certain Commonly Used Drugs May Increase Risk Of Dementia [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. School Meal Programs: Changes to Federal Agencies’ Procedures Could Reduce Risk of School Children Consuming Recalled Food (No. GAO-09-649). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glasgow, H.L., 2015. Design and Selection of Probes for In Vivo Molecular Targeting and Imaging (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2003. MOSCOW: THE BALLERINA SUES. New York Times E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brito, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bray and Tartaglia, 2000; Brito, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bray and Tartaglia, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Dubrovinsky et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolar Science
AbbreviationPolar Sci.
ISSN (print)1873-9652
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Earth and Planetary Sciences

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