How to format your references using the Polar Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Polar Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A., 2001. Hopes of biotech interest spur Latvian population genetics. Nature 412, 468.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ahn, N.G., Resing, K.A., 2005. Cell biology. Lessons in rational drug design for protein kinases. Science 308, 1266–1267.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tylianakis, J.M., Tscharntke, T., Lewis, O.T., 2007. Habitat modification alters the structure of tropical host-parasitoid food webs. Nature 445, 202–205.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Deng, J., Pan, T., Xu, Q., Chen, M.-Y., Zhang, Y., Guo, Q.-X., Fu, Y., 2013. Linked strategy for the production of fuels via formose reaction. Sci. Rep. 3, 1244.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jarry, P., Beneat, J., 2007. Advanced Design Techniques and Realizations of Microwave and RF Filters. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ponce-Cruz, P., 2016. Fuzzy Logic Type 1 and Type 2 Based on LabVIEWTM FPGA, Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Tamás, C., Tibor, L., 2016. Types of Development and Their Occurrence in the Capital City, in: Tibor, L. (Ed.), Settlement Morphology of Budapest, Springer Geography. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 73–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Polar Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Smart Artificial Skin Could Give Prosthetic Limbs Feeling [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. Federal R&D Laboratories--Directors’ Perspectives on Management (No. PSAD-80-8). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Espinoza, M., 2010. A Latina’s educational attainment and her observations of foster youth’s educational struggles: A narrative (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brennan, T.J., 2017. Why Pot, Not Pills, Works for My T.B.I. New York Times A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott, 2001; Ahn and Resing, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ahn and Resing, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Deng et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolar Science
AbbreviationPolar Sci.
ISSN (print)1873-9652
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Earth and Planetary Sciences

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