How to format your references using the Polar Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Polar Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trounson, A., 2009. Obituary: Xiangzhong (Jerry) Yang (1959-2009). Nature 458, 161.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoveyda, A.H., Zhugralin, A.R., 2007. The remarkable metal-catalysed olefin metathesis reaction. Nature 450, 243–251.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pham, T.C.T., Kim, H.S., Yoon, K.B., 2011. Growth of uniformly oriented silica MFI and BEA zeolite films on substrates. Science 334, 1533–1538.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chereau, D., Boczkowska, M., Skwarek-Maruszewska, A., Fujiwara, I., Hayes, D.B., Rebowski, G., Lappalainen, P., Pollard, T.D., Dominguez, R., 2008. Leiomodin is an actin filament nucleator in muscle cells. Science 320, 239–243.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Celant, G., Broniatowski, M., 2016. Interpolation and Extrapolation Optimal Designs 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Guillet, F., Pinaud, B., Venturini, G., Zighed, D.A. (Eds.), 2014. Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Management: Volume 4, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Merli, G., 2011. La trasformazione del modello di business: il Business Modelling, in: Minin, A.D., Varaldo, R. (Eds.), Nuovi Modelli Di Business e Creazione Di Valore: La Scienza Dei Servizi, Sxi — Springer per l’Innovazione / Sxi — Springer for Innovation. Springer, Milano, pp. 95–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Polar Science.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017. NASA Sent One Identical Twin Brother To Space For A Year And Studied How It Changed Him — Here Are The First Results [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Federal Communications Commission: Use of the 28 GHz and 31 GHz Bands for Local Multipoint Distribution Service (No. OGC-97-40). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hutson, M.D., 2015. Three Essays on Macroeconomic Forecasting (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Minder, R., Callimachi, R., 2017. Officials Hunting for a Moroccan Man in the Barcelona Attack Investigation. New York Times A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Trounson, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Hoveyda and Zhugralin, 2007; Trounson, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hoveyda and Zhugralin, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Chereau et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolar Science
AbbreviationPolar Sci.
ISSN (print)1873-9652
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Earth and Planetary Sciences

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