How to format your references using the Polar Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Polar Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell, K., 2005. The staff dreams are made of. Nature 435, 242–243.
A journal article with 2 authors
Olszewski, T.D., Erwin, D.H., 2004. Dynamic response of Permian brachiopod communities to long-term environmental change. Nature 428, 738–741.
A journal article with 3 authors
Waghmare, P.R., Das, S., Mitra, S.K., 2013. Under-water superoleophobic glass: unexplored role of the surfactant-rich solvent. Sci. Rep. 3, 1862.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, Y.-Q., Wang, F.-X., Xiao, Y., Peng, H.-D., Zhong, H.-J., Liu, Z.-H., Pan, G.-B., 2014. Facile microwave-assisted synthesis of Klockmannite CuSe nanosheets and their exceptional electrical properties. Sci. Rep. 4, 5998.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alacoque, J.C., 2012. Direct Eigen Control for Induction Machines and Synchronous Motors. A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Linol, B., de Wit, M.J. (Eds.), 2016. Origin and Evolution of the Cape Mountains and Karoo Basin, Regional Geology Reviews. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
D’amico, R., 2007. Disease and the Concept of Supervenience, in: Kincaid, H., McKitrick, J. (Eds.), Establishing Medical Reality: Essays In The Metaphysics And Epistemology Of Biomedical Science, Philosophy and Medicine. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 35–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Polar Science.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2016. Moths Know Which Flowers Fit Their Mouthparts The Best [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Customs Modernization (No. AIMD-97-43R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kashyap, S.K., 2017. Bit Error Rate Performance of 4x2 Space-Time MIMO-OFDM Conjugate Cancellation Techniques (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C., 2011. One High School Band and the Changes It Wrought. New York Times A31B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Powell, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Olszewski and Erwin, 2004; Powell, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Olszewski and Erwin, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolar Science
AbbreviationPolar Sci.
ISSN (print)1873-9652
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Earth and Planetary Sciences

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