How to format your references using the Polar Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Polar Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt, T., 2005. Internet star shoots for a rocket revolution. Nature 438, 736–737.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fox, P., Hendler, J., 2011. Changing the equation on scientific data visualization. Science 331, 705–708.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bhagat, D., Samanta, S.K., Bhattacharya, S., 2013. Efficient management of fruit pests by pheromone nanogels. Sci. Rep. 3, 1294.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, Q., Du, Q., Jiao, T., Zhang, Z., Wang, S., Sun, Q., Gao, F., 2013. Rationally designed porous polystyrene encapsulated zirconium phosphate nanocomposite for highly efficient fluoride uptake in waters. Sci. Rep. 3, 2551.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scharf, T., 2006. Polarized Light in Liquid Crystals and Polymers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Fabbro, S. (Ed.), 2015. Mega Transport Infrastructure Planning: European Corridors in Local-Regional Perspective, 1st ed. 2015. ed. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Zamani, C., 2013. Nano-Bio Structures Developed via Electrophoresis, in: Nazarpour, S. (Ed.), Thin Films and Coatings in Biology, Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 145–170.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Polar Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Japanese Laboratory Fires World’s Most Powerful Laser [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Federal Agencies’ Contracting for Research and Development in the Private, Profitmaking Sector (No. PSAD-77-66). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dillard, C., 2017. Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS) and Implementation Science (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rubin, A.J., 2017. Economy Idle, France Relaxes Its Labor Law. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reichhardt, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Fox and Hendler, 2011; Reichhardt, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fox and Hendler, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolar Science
AbbreviationPolar Sci.
ISSN (print)1873-9652
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Earth and Planetary Sciences

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