How to format your references using the African Archaeological Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Archaeological Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paytan, A. (2000). Global change. Iron uncertainty. Nature, 406(6795), 468–469.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheng, Z., & Tsourkas, A. (2014). Monitoring phospholipase A₂ activity with Gd-encapsulated phospholipid liposomes. Scientific reports, 4, 6958.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kremer, M., Brannen, C., & Glennerster, R. (2013). The challenge of education and learning in the developing world. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6130), 297–300.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Charnoz, S., Porco, C. C., Déau, E., Brahic, A., Spitale, J. N., Bacques, G., & Baillie, K. (2005). Cassini discovers a kinematic spiral ring around Saturn. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5752), 1300–1304.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kupka, H. J. (2010). Transitions in Molecular Systems. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Mago, V. K., & Dabbaghian, V. (Eds.). (2014). Computational Models of Complex Systems (Vol. 53). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Tam, E., & Sweeney, T.-A. (2016). Learning with iPads in Early Childhood Education. In J. Orrell & D. D. Curtis (Eds.), Publishing Higher Degree Research: Making the Transition from Student to Researcher (pp. 43–52). Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Archaeological Review.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, August 29). Juno Completed Its First Jupiter Flyby. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Environmental Protection Agency: Comparing Annual Budgets for Science and Technology (No. T-RCED-00-132). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clark, J. (2015). Screening for Allelopathic Potential and Self Facilitation in Japanese Hops (Humulus japonicus, Cannabaceae) (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Southall, A. (2016, June 20). Brownsville Residents Seek Answers After a Mentally Ill Ex-Convict Is Fatally Shot. New York Times, p. A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Paytan 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Cheng and Tsourkas 2014; Paytan 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cheng and Tsourkas 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Charnoz et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Archaeological Review
AbbreviationAfr. Archaeol. Rev.
ISSN (print)0263-0338
ISSN (online)1572-9842

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