How to format your references using the African Archaeological Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Archaeological Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lessler, J. (2014). Immunology. Charting the life-course epidemiology of influenza. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6212), 919–920.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kalinin, S. V., & Spaldin, N. A. (2013). Materials science. Functional ion defects in transition metal oxides. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6148), 858–859.
A journal article with 3 authors
Erickson, G. M., Rogers, K. C., & Yerby, S. A. (2001). Dinosaurian growth patterns and rapid avian growth rates. Nature, 412(6845), 429–433.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mao, L., Luo, S., Huang, Q., & Lu, J. (2013). Horseradish peroxidase inactivation: heme destruction and influence of polyethylene glycol. Scientific reports, 3, 3126.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cabaniss, D. L., Cherry, S., Douglas, C. J., & Schwartz, A. (2010). Psychodynamic Psychotherapy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bernard, M. E. (Ed.). (2013). The Strength of Self-Acceptance: Theory, Practice and Research. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Haacke, E. M., Raza, W., Wu, B., & Kou, Z. (2013). The Presence of Venous Damage and Microbleeds in Traumatic Brain Injury and the Potential Future Role of Angiographic and Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In C. W. Kreipke & J. A. Rafols (Eds.), Cerebral Blood Flow, Metabolism, and Head Trauma: The Pathotrajectory of Traumatic Brain Injury (pp. 75–94). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Archaeological Review.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, July 10). Immunizing Frogs Against a Killer Fungus. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). High-Containment Laboratories: Actions Needed to Mitigate Risk of Potential Exposure and Release of Dangerous Pathogens (No. GAO-16-871T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dunbar, S. (2013). Sideshow: An alluring dichotomy of illusion and humanity (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2002, December 24). World Briefing | Europe: Lithuania: Presidential Runoff. New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lessler 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Kalinin and Spaldin 2013; Lessler 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kalinin and Spaldin 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Mao et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Archaeological Review
AbbreviationAfr. Archaeol. Rev.
ISSN (print)0263-0338
ISSN (online)1572-9842

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