How to format your references using the African Archaeological Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Archaeological Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weeks, E. R. (2012). Materials science. Melting colloidal crystals from the inside out. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6103), 55–56.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wyithe, J. S. B., & Loeb, A. (2002). Magnification of light from many distant quasars by gravitational lenses. Nature, 417(6892), 923–925.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meloso, D., Copic, J., & Bossaerts, P. (2009). Promoting intellectual discovery: patents versus markets. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5919), 1335–1339.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lavallo, V., Canac, Y., Donnadieu, B., Schoeller, W. W., & Bertrand, G. (2006). Cyclopropenylidenes: from interstellar space to an isolated derivative in the laboratory. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5774), 722–724.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gupta, K. M., & Gupta, N. (2015). Advanced Electrical and Electronics Materials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
D’Odorico, P., & Porporato, A. (Eds.). (2006). Dryland Ecohydrology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Diop, A., Qi, Y., & Wang, Q. (2014). An Efficient and Secure Session Key Management Scheme for Cluster Based Wireless Sensors Networks. In Q. Zu, M. Vargas-Vera, & B. Hu (Eds.), Pervasive Computing and the Networked World: Joint International Conference, ICPCA/SWS 2013, Vina del Mar, Chile, December 5-7, 2013. Revised Selected Papers (pp. 33–44). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Archaeological Review.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2017, January 12). Can You Solve This First Grade Math Problem? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). Delays and Increased Cost Result From the Zilwaukee, Michigan, Bridge Project Mishap (No. RCED-84-144). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yaudes, K. L. (2017). Change Your Category, Change Your Mind: The Mutability of Folk Models of Mental Health Disorders (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schilling, M. K. (2017, May 9). The Accidental Tourist. New York Times, p. M2106.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weeks 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Weeks 2012; Wyithe and Loeb 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wyithe and Loeb 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Lavallo et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Archaeological Review
AbbreviationAfr. Archaeol. Rev.
ISSN (print)0263-0338
ISSN (online)1572-9842

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