How to format your references using the African Archaeological Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Archaeological Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brunini, A. (2006). Origin of the obliquities of the giant planets in mutual interactions in the early Solar System. Nature, 440(7088), 1163–1165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bollrath, J., & Powrie, F. (2013). Immunology. Feed your Tregs more fiber. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6145), 463–464.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dwyer, G., Dushoff, J., & Yee, S. H. (2004). The combined effects of pathogens and predators on insect outbreaks. Nature, 430(6997), 341–345.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Domack, E., Duran, D., Leventer, A., Ishman, S., Doane, S., McCallum, S., et al. (2005). Stability of the Larsen B ice shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula during the Holocene epoch. Nature, 436(7051), 681–685.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gray, D. F., & Malone, S. W. (2008). Macrofinancial Risk Analysis. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Theeramunkong, T., Kijsirikul, B., Cercone, N., & Ho, T.-B. (Eds.). (2009). Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining: 13th Pacific-Asia Conference, PAKDD 2009 Bangkok, Thailand, April 27-30, 2009 Proceedings (Vol. 5476). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Neumann, K.-H., Imani, J., & Kumar, A. (2009). Cell Suspension Cultures. In A. Kumar & K.-H. Neumann (Eds.), Plant Cell and Tissue Culture - A Tool in Biotechnology: Basics and Application (pp. 43–50). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Archaeological Review.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 28). Solar Technology Could Make Underground Parks In Cramped Cities Possible. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Information Technology: Architecture Needed to Guide NASA’s Financial Management Modernization (No. GAO-04-43). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown, E. R. (2011). Comparison of instructional techniques of high school economics teachers in Georgia and Shenzhen, China (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2006, October 8). QUICK BITE | Chester; Cider, From Doughnuts to Hot Dogs. New York Times, p. 14NJ19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brunini 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Bollrath and Powrie 2013; Brunini 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bollrath and Powrie 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Domack et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Archaeological Review
AbbreviationAfr. Archaeol. Rev.
ISSN (print)0263-0338
ISSN (online)1572-9842

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