How to format your references using the African Archaeological Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Archaeological Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crowder, R. (2006). Applied physics. Toward robots that can sense texture by touch. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5779), 1478–1479.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kueh, H. Y., & Mitchison, T. J. (2009). Structural plasticity in actin and tubulin polymer dynamics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5943), 960–963.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wootton, S. K., Halbert, C. L., & Miller, A. D. (2005). Sheep retrovirus structural protein induces lung tumours. Nature, 434(7035), 904–907.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Waltereit, P., Brandt, O., Trampert, A., Grahn, H. T., Menniger, J., Ramsteiner, M., et al. (2000). Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes. Nature, 406(6798), 865–868.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
d’Andria, A., & Gabarret, I. (2017). Building 21st Century Entrepreneurship. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Acedo, C., Adams, D., & Popa, S. (Eds.). (2012). Quality and Qualities: Tensions in Education Reforms (Vol. 16). Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Misnikov, Y. (2016). Democratisating the Eastern Partnership in the Digital Age: Challenges and Opportunities of Political Association Beyond the Language of Official Texts. In T. Kerikmäe & A. Chochia (Eds.), Political and Legal Perspectives of the EU Eastern Partnership Policy (pp. 59–79). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Archaeological Review.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, October 30). Why Do Witches Fly on Brooms? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Aviation Security: FAA’s Procurement of Explosives Detection Devices (No. RCED-97-111R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schultz, S. M. (2010). Interpreting the assemblages of Lonnie Holley through his performative explanations (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J. (2016, January 11). Minneapolis Grapples With a Community Being Left Behind. New York Times, p. A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crowder 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Crowder 2006; Kueh and Mitchison 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kueh and Mitchison 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Waltereit et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Archaeological Review
AbbreviationAfr. Archaeol. Rev.
ISSN (print)0263-0338
ISSN (online)1572-9842

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