How to format your references using the African Archaeological Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Archaeological Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greely, H. T. (2011). Get ready for the flood of fetal gene screening. Nature, 469(7330), 289–291.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meibom, A., & Frei, R. (2002). Evidence for an ancient osmium isotopic reservoir in Earth. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5567), 516–518.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hacker, J., Hentschel, U., & Dobrindt, U. (2003). Prokaryotic chromosomes and disease. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5634), 790–793.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pei, Z., Shi, G., Kondo, S., Ito, M., Maekawa, A., Suzuki, M., et al. (2013). Adenovirus vectors lacking virus-associated RNA expression enhance shRNA activity to suppress hepatitis C virus replication. Scientific reports, 3, 3575.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dunnivant, F. M., & Anders, E. (2005). A Basic Introduction to Pollutant Fate and Transport. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jackson, M. B., Mookherjee, S., & Hamlin, N. P. (Eds.). (2015). The Perioperative Medicine Consult Handbook (Second Edition.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Asiki, A., Tsoumakos, D., & Koziris, N. (2012). A DHT-Based System for the Management of Loosely Structured, Multidimensional Data. In A. Hameurlain, J. Küng, R. Wagner, S. W. Liddle, K.-D. Schewe, & X. Zhou (Eds.), Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems VI: Special Issue on Database- and Expert-Systems Applications (pp. 134–166). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Archaeological Review.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, March 24). No-Drip Wine Bottle Devised By Physicist. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Air Traffic Control: FAA’s Advanced Automation System Contract (No. IMTEC-91-25). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robinson-Scott, D. (2010). Policy analysis of the Chafee Foster Care Independence Act of 1999 (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2016, January 5). Struggling Puerto Rico Defaults on Its Debt Payments. New York Times, p. B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greely 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Greely 2011; Meibom and Frei 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Meibom and Frei 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Pei et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Archaeological Review
AbbreviationAfr. Archaeol. Rev.
ISSN (print)0263-0338
ISSN (online)1572-9842

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