How to format your references using the African Archaeological Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Archaeological Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chambers, R. G. (2004). Obituary: David Shoenberg (1911-2004). Nature, 428(6983), 613.
A journal article with 2 authors
Joron, M., & Brakefield, P. M. (2003). Captivity masks inbreeding effects on male mating success in butterflies. Nature, 424(6945), 191–194.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lazzaro, B. P., Sceurman, B. K., & Clark, A. G. (2004). Genetic basis of natural variation in D. melanogaster antibacterial immunity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5665), 1873–1876.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yasuda, S., Oceguera-Yanez, F., Kato, T., Okamoto, M., Yonemura, S., Terada, Y., et al. (2004). Cdc42 and mDia3 regulate microtubule attachment to kinetochores. Nature, 428(6984), 767–771.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hey, E. (2011). Neonatal Formulary 6. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Looi, C.-K., & Teh, L. W. (Eds.). (2015). Scaling Educational Innovations. Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lowe, E. K., Cuomo, C., & Arnone, M. I. (2016). A Differential Transcriptomic Approach to Compare Target Genes of Homologous Transcription Factors in Echinoderm Species. In A. Rogato, V. Zazzu, & M. Guarracino (Eds.), Dynamics of Mathematical Models in Biology: Bringing Mathematics to Life (pp. 55–63). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Archaeological Review.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, December 15). First Edition Of Newton’s Principia Mathematica Becomes World’s Most Expensive Science Book. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Hispanic Dropouts and Federal Programs (No. PEMD-94-18R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yuknis, C. M. (2010). A grounded theory of deaf middle school students’ revision of their own writing (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. (2016, March 20). Using Their Artistic Vision to Pierce Iran’s Veil. New York Times, p. WE7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chambers 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Chambers 2004; Joron and Brakefield 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Joron and Brakefield 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Yasuda et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Archaeological Review
AbbreviationAfr. Archaeol. Rev.
ISSN (print)0263-0338
ISSN (online)1572-9842

Other styles