How to format your references using the Polar Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Polar Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball P (2002) Let’s catch some rays. Nature 419:12–14
A journal article with 2 authors
Rohde PP, Dowling JP (2015) QUANTUM OPTICS. The on-ramp to the all-optical quantum information processing highway. Science 349:696
A journal article with 3 authors
Nielsen MH, Aloni S, De Yoreo JJ (2014) In situ TEM imaging of CaCO₃ nucleation reveals coexistence of direct and indirect pathways. Science 345:1158–1162
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tuzzolino AJ, Economou TE, Clark BC, et al (2004) Dust measurements in the coma of comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Dust Flux Monitor Instrument. Science 304:1776–1780

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Démoulin B, Besnier P (2011) Electromagnetic Reverberation Chambers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Love JC (2011) Skeletal Atlas of Child Abuse. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ
A chapter in an edited book
Cano EL, Moguerza JM, Corcoba MP (2015) Modelling Quality with R. In: Martinez Moguerza J, Prieto M (eds) Quality Control with R: An ISO Standards Approach. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 145–186

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Polar Biology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) How Volkswagen Got Caught Cheating Emissions Tests By A Clean Air NGO. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Geospatial Data: Progress Needed on Identifying Expenditures, Building and Utilizing a Data Infrastructure, and Reducing Duplicative Efforts [Reissued March 18, 2015]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roan R (2017) Depth and Digital in Conversation: Practicing Marriage and Family Therapy Directly With Video Game Avatars. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson G (2015) The Gradual Extinction of Accepted Truths. New York Times D6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ball 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Ball 2002; Rohde and Dowling 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rohde and Dowling 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Tuzzolino et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolar Biology
AbbreviationPolar Biol.
ISSN (print)0722-4060
ISSN (online)1432-2056
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

Other styles