How to format your references using the Polar Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Polar Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bronner-Fraser M (2004) Development. Making sense of the sensory lineage. Science 303:966–968
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee DH, Gupta JA (2010) Tunable field control over the binding energy of single dopants by a charged vacancy in GaAs. Science 330:1807–1810
A journal article with 3 authors
Fehr E, Bernhard H, Rockenbach B (2008) Egalitarianism in young children. Nature 454:1079–1083
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sabari BR, Dall’Agnese A, Boija A, et al (2018) Coactivator condensation at super-enhancers links phase separation and gene control. Science 361:

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Durenard EA (2013) Professional Automated Trading. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Gelo OCG, Pritz A, Rieken B (eds) (2015) Psychotherapy Research: Foundations, Process, and Outcome. Springer, Vienna
A chapter in an edited book
Fang AC, Cao J (2015) Etymological Features Across Genres and Registers. In: Cao J (ed) Text Genres and Registers: The Computation of Linguistic Features. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 55–70

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Polar Biology.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Thousand Of Migrating Snow Geese Die After Landing In Toxic Mine. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Computer-Based Patient Records: VA and DOD Made Progress, but Much Work Remains to Fully Share Medical Information. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Slotterback D (2010) Parent Partner Program and Organization (3P-O) parents mentoring parents in child welfare: A grant-writing project. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2007) Court to Weigh Disparities in Cocaine Laws. New York Times A15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bronner-Fraser 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Bronner-Fraser 2004; Lee and Gupta 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee and Gupta 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Sabari et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolar Biology
AbbreviationPolar Biol.
ISSN (print)0722-4060
ISSN (online)1432-2056
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

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