How to format your references using the Polar Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Polar Biology (Polar Biol). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
White MF (2003) Insulin signaling in health and disease. Science 302:1710–1711
A journal article with 2 authors
Jacobs SA, Khorasanizadeh S (2002) Structure of HP1 chromodomain bound to a lysine 9-methylated histone H3 tail. Science 295:2080–2083
A journal article with 3 authors
Cavazzana-Calvo M, Thrasher A, Mavilio F (2004) The future of gene therapy. Nature 427:779–781
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sugioka H, Hamano Y, Baba K, et al (2014) Tsunami: ocean dynamo generator. Sci Rep 4:3596

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burnham D, Skilleås OM (2012) The Aesthetics of Wine. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Smith D (2013) Research in Clinical Practice. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Aparicio G, Ruiz-Roqueñi M, Catalán E (2015) A Model for Implementing Non-specific Competencies (NSCs) in Degree Studies, Defined Using a Delphi Study in Spanish Universities. In: Peris-Ortiz M, Merigó Lindahl JM (eds) Sustainable Learning in Higher Education: Developing Competencies for the Global Marketplace. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 47–61

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Polar Biology.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) 50,000-Year-Old Microbial “Super Life” Found Trapped Within Crystals. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Intercollegiate Athletics: Four-Year Colleges’ Experiences Adding and Discontinuing Teams. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Magda B (2009) Increasing efficacy of emergency departments through systems analysis of enterprise architecture: Mitigating the impact of technological change. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter J (2016) Europe’s Parliament Votes to Suspend Talks With Turkey on Joining E.U. New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (White 2003).
This sentence cites two references (White 2003, [CSL STYLE ERROR: reference with no printed form.]).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jacobs and Khorasanizadeh 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Sugioka et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolar Biology
AbbreviationPolar Biol.
ISSN (print)0722-4060
ISSN (online)1432-2056
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

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