How to format your references using the Polar Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Polar Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rychert CA (2015) Earth science: The slippery base of a tectonic plate. Nature 518:39–40
A journal article with 2 authors
Farmer ME, Baran PS (2015) Organic chemistry: A cure for catalyst poisoning. Nature 524:164–165
A journal article with 3 authors
Prospero JM, Bullard JE, Hodgkins R (2012) High-latitude dust over the North Atlantic: inputs from Icelandic proglacial dust storms. Science 335:1078–1082
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kang D, Guo Y, Ren C, et al (2014) Population structure and spatial pattern of main tree species in secondary Betula platyphylla forest in Ziwuling Mountains, China. Sci Rep 4:6873

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coates M, Jenkins B (2010) Electrical Installation Calculations: For Compliance with BS 7671:2008. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Wolf F, Mohr B, Mey D an (eds) (2013) Euro-Par 2013 Parallel Processing: 19th International Conference, Aachen, Germany, August 26-30, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Rothschild BM, Schultze H-P, Pellegrini R (2012) Annotated Bibliography A-C. In: Schultze H-P, Pellegrini R (eds) Herpetological Osteopathology: Annotated Bibliography of Amphibians and Reptiles. Springer, New York, NY, pp 55–115

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Polar Biology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Sea Lion Plays With Little Girl - But Watch What Happens When She Falls Down. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Statewide Transportation Planning: Opportunities Exist to Transition to Performance-Based Planning and Federal Oversight. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salie A (2008) Servant-minded leadership and work satisfaction in Islamic organizations: A correlational mixed study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by (2005) Arts, Briefly; Russian Art Sets Records in London. New York Times B8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rychert 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Rychert 2015; Farmer and Baran 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Farmer and Baran 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Kang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolar Biology
AbbreviationPolar Biol.
ISSN (print)0722-4060
ISSN (online)1432-2056
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

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