How to format your references using the Polar Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Polar Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith CL (2007) How the LHC came to be. Nature 448:281–284
A journal article with 2 authors
Moyle LC, Nakazato T (2010) Hybrid incompatibility “snowballs” between Solanum species. Science 329:1521–1523
A journal article with 3 authors
Anderson PW, Brinkman WF, Huse DA (2005) Thermodynamics of an incommensurate quantum crystal. Science 310:1164–1166
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zagoskin AM, Wilson RD, Everitt M, et al (2013) Spatially resolved single photon detection with a quantum sensor array. Sci Rep 3:3464

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Frank P, Ottoboni MA (2011) The Dose Makes the Poison. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Radev D (ed) (2013) Puzzles in Logic, Languages and Computation: The Green Book. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Chen JZM, Ji Y (2016) Paul Yee’s Daoist and Confucian Ethics and Values. In: Ji Y (ed) Canadian-Daoist Poetics, Ethics, and Aesthetics: An Interdisciplinary and Cross-cultural Study. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 73–89

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Polar Biology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Incredible Video Shows Volcanic Eruption in Papua New Guinea. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) Biological Research: Observations on DHS’s Analyses Concerning Whether FMD Research Can Be Done as Safely on the Mainland as on Plum Island. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez NM (2010) The influence of formal and informal support on the quality of life of individuals with a severe mental illness. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Victor D (2017) Dismissed Breitbart Editor Blames Anti-Muslim Tweets. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Smith 2007; Moyle and Nakazato 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moyle and Nakazato 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Zagoskin et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolar Biology
AbbreviationPolar Biol.
ISSN (print)0722-4060
ISSN (online)1432-2056
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

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