How to format your references using the Polar Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Polar Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski D (2005) Malaysia plans “red book” in its attempts to go green. Nature 436:313
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruprecht P, Plank T (2013) Feeding andesitic eruptions with a high-speed connection from the mantle. Nature 500:68–72
A journal article with 3 authors
Gwak G, Ko J, Ju H (2014) Effects of porous properties on cold-start behavior of polymer electrolyte fuel cells from sub-zero to normal operating temperatures. Sci Rep 4:5770
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Seo HS, Yang J-Y, Ishikawa M, et al (2003) LAF1 ubiquitination by COP1 controls photomorphogenesis and is stimulated by SPA1. Nature 423:995–999

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Worth SM (2010) The Association Guide to Going Global. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Mariani J, Rosset S, Garnier-Rizet M, Devillers L (eds) (2014) Natural Interaction with Robots, Knowbots and Smartphones: Putting Spoken Dialog Systems into Practice. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Agarwal A, Gupta S, Sharma R (2016) Basic Semen Analysis. In: Agarwal A, Gupta S, Sharma R (eds) Andrological Evaluation of Male Infertility: A Laboratory Guide. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 39–46

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Polar Biology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Deep Ocean Harbours 95% Of All Ocean Fish. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Vehicle Safety: Technologies, Challenges, and Research and Development Expenditures for Advanced Air Bags. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Niedringhaus B (2012) Best Practice in Early Reading Intervention: Implementing a Reading Intervention Program to Reach Below Level Readers. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas R (2015) Husband Charged With Murder in Wife’s ’09 Death on Upper West Side. New York Times A24

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski 2005; Ruprecht and Plank 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ruprecht and Plank 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Seo et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolar Biology
AbbreviationPolar Biol.
ISSN (print)0722-4060
ISSN (online)1432-2056
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

Other styles