How to format your references using the Polar Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Polar Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Templeton A (2002) Out of Africa again and again. Nature 416:45–51
A journal article with 2 authors
Deban SM, Olson WM (2002) Suction feeding by a tiny predatory tadpole. Nature 420:41–42
A journal article with 3 authors
McPhaden MJ, Zebiak SE, Glantz MH (2006) ENSO as an integrating concept in earth science. Science 314:1740–1745
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Raab-Graham KF, Haddick PCG, Jan YN, Jan LY (2006) Activity- and mTOR-dependent suppression of Kv1.1 channel mRNA translation in dendrites. Science 314:144–148

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schneider HJ (2013) Wittgenstein’s Later Theory of Meaning. John Wiley & Sons Inc., Chichester, UK
An edited book
Fabian M (2011) Banach Space Theory: The Basis for Linear and Nonlinear Analysis. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Sultana A, Cox T, Ghaneh P, Neoptolemos JP (2012) Adjuvant Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer. In: Otto F, Lutz MP (eds) Early Gastrointestinal Cancers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 65–88

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Polar Biology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Dead Basking Shark Caught and Donated to Museum Victoria. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) FCC: Maritime Communications. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cook MM (2017) An Examination of the Proportion of Special Education Students in Single-Parent Homes in Comparison to Regular Education Students in Similar Households. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines M (2017) 3 Lawsuits Filed Against White House Panel on Voter Fraud. New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Templeton 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Templeton 2002; Deban and Olson 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Deban and Olson 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Raab-Graham et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolar Biology
AbbreviationPolar Biol.
ISSN (print)0722-4060
ISSN (online)1432-2056
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

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