How to format your references using the Applied Nursing Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Nursing Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004). Mental barriers. Nature, 429(6993), 785.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dey, S., & Joshi, A. (2013). Effects of constant immigration on the dynamics and persistence of stable and unstable Drosophila populations. Scientific Reports, 3, 1405.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wade, J. T., Hall, D. B., & Struhl, K. (2004). The transcription factor Ifh1 is a key regulator of yeast ribosomal protein genes. Nature, 432(7020), 1054–1058.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Archibald, J. D., Clemens, W. A., Padian, K., Rowe, T., Macleod, N., Barrett, P. M., Gale, A., Holroyd, P., Sues, H.-D., Arens, N. C., Horner, J. R., Wilson, G. P., Goodwin, M. B., Brochu, C. A., Lofgren, D. L., Hurlbert, S. H., Hartman, J. H., Eberth, D. A., Wignall, P. B., … Sahni, A. (2010). Cretaceous extinctions: multiple causes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5981), 973; author reply 975-6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carne, E. B. (2011). Connections for the Digital Age. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Godara, B., & Nikita, K. S. (Eds.). (2013). Wireless Mobile Communication and Healthcare: Third International Conference, MobiHealth 2012, Paris, France, November 21-23, 2012, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 61). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sarma, B., & Sarma, A. K. (2016). Optimal Allocation of Ecological Management Practices in a Hilly Urban Watershed. In A. K. Sarma, V. P. Singh, S. A. Kartha, & R. K. Bhattacharjya (Eds.), Urban Hydrology, Watershed Management and Socio-Economic Aspects (pp. 35–47). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Nursing Research.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, July 9). Why Some Hosts Reject Parasitic Cuckoo Eggs While Others Don’t. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Highway Public-Private Partnerships: More Rigorous Up-Front Analysis Could Better Secure Potential Benefits and Protect the Public Interest (GAO-08-1149R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Farnham, R. B. (2012). Processing and inpainting of sparse data as applied to atomic force microscopy imaging [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2008, May 20). State Tax Break Is Upheld For Municipal Bonds. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Dey & Joshi, 2013; Smaglik, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dey & Joshi, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Wade et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Archibald et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Nursing Research
AbbreviationAppl. Nurs. Res.
ISSN (print)0897-1897
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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