How to format your references using the Applied Nursing Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Nursing Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ainsworth, C. (2012). Immunology: A many layered thing. Nature, 492(7429), S52-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sriskantharajah, S., & Ley, S. C. (2010). Cell biology. Turning off inflammation signaling. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5969), 1093–1094.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hainzl, T., Huang, S., & Sauer-Eriksson, A. E. (2002). Structure of the SRP19 RNA complex and implications for signal recognition particle assembly. Nature, 417(6890), 767–771.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Becerril, L., Galindo, I., Gudmundsson, A., & Morales, J. M. (2013). Depth of origin of magma in eruptions. Scientific Reports, 3, 2762.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Becker, K., & Rautenstrauch, K. (2012). Ingenieurholzbau nach Eurocode 5: Konstruktion, Berechnung, Ausführung. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Vujičić, M., & Sanderson, J. (Eds.). (2008). Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ishikawa, J., Furuta, K., & Pavković, N. (2009). Test and Evaluation of Japanese GPR-EMI Dual Sensor Systems at the Benkovac Test Site in Croatia. In K. Furuta & J. Ishikawa (Eds.), Anti-personnel Landmine Detection for Humanitarian Demining: The Current Situation and Future Direction for Japanese Research and Development (pp. 63–81). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Nursing Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, December 9). Saturn’s Bulge Tells Us That Some Of Its Moons Are Younger Than Thought. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). FAA Budget: 1991 Funding Request for Computers and Communications Can Be Reduced (IMTEC-90-89). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vincent, C. (2010). Viewing Dissociative Identity Disorder through a Jungian lens [Doctoral dissertation]. Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, J. (2017, June 22). An Olio of E.U. Rules, Leading to Food Fights. New York Times, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ainsworth, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Ainsworth, 2012; Sriskantharajah & Ley, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sriskantharajah & Ley, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Hainzl et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Becerril et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Nursing Research
AbbreviationAppl. Nurs. Res.
ISSN (print)0897-1897
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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