How to format your references using the Applied Nursing Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Nursing Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage, N. (2012). Come into the light. Nature, 483(7389), S38-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, J., & Diamond, J. (2008). Science and government. Revolutionizing China’s environmental protection. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5859), 37–38.
A journal article with 3 authors
Royle, N. J., Hartley, I. R., & Parker, G. A. (2002). Sexual conflict reduces offspring fitness in zebra finches. Nature, 416(6882), 733–736.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lee, J., Dak, P., Lee, Y., Park, H., Choi, W., Alam, M. A., & Kim, S. (2014). Two-dimensional layered MoS₂ biosensors enable highly sensitive detection of biomolecules. Scientific Reports, 4, 7352.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sanders, S. (2015). Seizures in Dogs and Cats. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Grünig, R. (2013). Successful Decision-Making: A Systematic Approach to Complex Problems (R. Kühn, Ed.; 3rd ed. 2013). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gulliver, J. S. (2012). Transport in the Environment. In J. S. Gulliver (Ed.), Transport and Fate of Chemicals in the Environment: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology (pp. 65–88). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Nursing Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 30). Hoax CNN Article That Terrified The Public Taken Down. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Information Security: Department of Education and Other Federal Agencies Need to Better Implement Controls (GAO-16-228T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spanier, A. J. (2008). The Relationship of Genes and Environment with Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Children with Asthma [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D., & Baker, P. (2017, May 20). Saudis Welcome Trump’s Rebuff Of Obama’s Views. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savage, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Liu & Diamond, 2008; Savage, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu & Diamond, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Royle et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lee et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Nursing Research
AbbreviationAppl. Nurs. Res.
ISSN (print)0897-1897
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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