How to format your references using the Applied Nursing Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Nursing Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Richard, T. L. (2010). Challenges in scaling up biofuels infrastructure. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5993), 793–796.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, L., & Ye, K. (2006). Crystal structure of an H/ACA box ribonucleoprotein particle. Nature, 443(7109), 302–307.
A journal article with 3 authors
Renault, L., Guibert, B., & Cherfils, J. (2003). Structural snapshots of the mechanism and inhibition of a guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Nature, 426(6966), 525–530.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gerber, T., Murawala, P., Knapp, D., Masselink, W., Schuez, M., Hermann, S., Gac-Santel, M., Nowoshilow, S., Kageyama, J., Khattak, S., Currie, J. D., Camp, J. G., Tanaka, E. M., & Treutlein, B. (2018). Single-cell analysis uncovers convergence of cell identities during axolotl limb regeneration. Science (New York, N.Y.), 362(6413).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beaumont, W. R. C. (2016). Electricity in fish research and management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Green, D. G. (2006). Complexity in Landscape Ecology (N. Klomp, G. Rimmington, & S. Sadedin, Eds.; Vol. 4). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Dedecker, J., Doukhan, P., Lang, G., José Rafael, L. R., Louhichi, S., & Prieur, C. (2007). Tools for causal cases. In P. Doukhan, G. Lang, L. R. José Rafael, S. Louhichi, & C. Prieur (Eds.), Weak Dependence: With Examples and Applications (pp. 103–134). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Nursing Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, March 31). Watch A Blood Moon Eclipse April 4th. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Potential Problems That Should Be Considered in Evaluating the Experimental Technology Incentives Program (PSAD-77-132). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Komatsuzaki, T. (2012). Borrowing constraints and the business cycle in emerging markets [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, August 3). A Guide to Screen Cred. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Richard, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Li & Ye, 2006; Richard, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li & Ye, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Renault et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Gerber et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Nursing Research
AbbreviationAppl. Nurs. Res.
ISSN (print)0897-1897
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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