How to format your references using the Applied Nursing Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Nursing Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kirshner, R. P. (2014). Astrophysics: Supernova seen through γ-ray eyes. Nature, 512(7515), 375–376.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hewak, D., & Gholipour, B. (2012). Materials science. Primed to remember. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6088), 1515–1516.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, M., Butka, E., & Wang, X. (2014). Comprehensive quantification of triacylglycerols in soybean seeds by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with multiple neutral loss scans. Scientific Reports, 4, 6581.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Balasubramanian, B., Mukherjee, P., Skomski, R., Manchanda, P., Das, B., & Sellmyer, D. J. (2014). Magnetic nanostructuring and overcoming Brown’s paradox to realize extraordinary high-temperature energy products. Scientific Reports, 4, 6265.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Biegelman, M. T. (2013). Faces of Fraud. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Linderfalk, U. (Ed.). (2007). On The Interpretation of Treaties: The Modern International Law as Expressed in the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (Vol. 83). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Capozza, I. (2006). A dynamic game of technology diffusion under emissions trading: an experiment. In R. Antes, B. Hansjürgens, & P. Letmathe (Eds.), Emissions Trading and Business (pp. 53–71). Physica-Verlag HD.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Nursing Research.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015, November 4). Man With Crohn’s Disease Shares Photo Of All The Medical Equipment He Uses Every Day To Prove That Looks Are Deceiving. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Information Technology: Update on VA Actions to Implement Critical Reforms (T-AIMD-00-74). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Norris, C. (2014). What is Lost Along the Way [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2005, November 20). At Museum Shops, Unusual Selections. New York Times, 14LI12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kirshner, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Hewak & Gholipour, 2012; Kirshner, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hewak & Gholipour, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Li et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Balasubramanian et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Nursing Research
AbbreviationAppl. Nurs. Res.
ISSN (print)0897-1897
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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