How to format your references using the Applied Nursing Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Nursing Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moore, D. D. (2011). Physiology. Crise de foie, redux? Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6022), 1275–1276.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hunt, K. K., & Vorburger, S. A. (2002). Tech.Sight. Gene therapy. Hurdles and hopes for cancer treatment. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5580), 415–416.
A journal article with 3 authors
McNally, A., Prier, C. K., & MacMillan, D. W. C. (2011). Discovery of an α-amino C-H arylation reaction using the strategy of accelerated serendipity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6059), 1114–1117.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gehrels, N., Macomb, D. J., Bertsch, D. L., Thompson, D. J., & Hartman, R. C. (2000). Discovery of a new population of high-energy gamma-ray sources in the Milky Way. Nature, 404(6776), 363–365.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Casandjian, C., Challamel, N., Lanos, C., & Hellesland, J. (2013). Reinforced Concrete Beams, Columns and Frames. Hoboken, NJ 07030 USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cantoni, L., & Xiang, Z. (phil) (Eds.). (2013). Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2013: Proceedings of the International Conference in Innsbruck, Austria, January 22-25, 2013. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Shen, Z.-J. (2006). Progress in Binary Medium Modeling of Geological Materials. In W. Wu & H.-S. Yu (Eds.), Modern Trends in Geomechanics (pp. 77–99). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Nursing Research.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, October 27). Alcoholism Research: A Virus Could Manipulate Neurons To Reduce The Desire To Drink. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Transportation Accessibility: Lack of Data and Limited Enforcement Options Limit Federal Oversight (No. GAO-07-1126). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hebel, O. (2012). Parental involvement in the individual educational program for Israeli students with disabilities (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belcher, D. (2014, October 6). Yuri Lyubimov, Experimental Director of the Russian Stage, Is Dead at 97. New York Times, p. A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moore, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Hunt & Vorburger, 2002; Moore, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hunt & Vorburger, 2002)
  • Three authors: (McNally, Prier, & MacMillan, 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Gehrels, Macomb, Bertsch, Thompson, & Hartman, 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Nursing Research
AbbreviationAppl. Nurs. Res.
ISSN (print)0897-1897
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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