How to format your references using the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Palmer T (2015) Modelling: Build imprecise supercomputers. Nature 526:32–33
A journal article with 2 authors
Finney J, Acton JM (2014) Nuclear-weapons dismantlement: identifying a hidden warhead. Nature 510:476–477
A journal article with 3 authors
Holland RA, Wikelski M, Wilcove DS (2006) How and why do insects migrate? Science 313:794–796
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Moberg A, Sonechkin DM, Holmgren K, et al (2005) Highly variable Northern Hemisphere temperatures reconstructed from low- and high-resolution proxy data. Nature 433:613–617

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety (1992) Guidelines for Auditing Process Safety Management Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lecomte A, Tronçon S (eds) (2011) Ludics, Dialogue and Interaction: PRELUDE Project - 2006-2009. Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
White PJ, Lomotan E (2016) Evidence Based Health Care. In: Finnell JT, Dixon BE (eds) Clinical Informatics Study Guide: Text and Review. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 101–109

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) World’s Oldest Engravings Discovered on 500,000-Year-Old Shells. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Responsibilities, Actions, and Coordination of Federal Agencies in International Telecommunications Services. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Owsiak NK (2008) Teacher quality accountability measures: Perceptions of degree and direction of influence on university -based teacher education programs. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J (2016) A Timeless Observer. New York Times BR6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Palmer 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Finney and Acton 2014; Palmer 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Finney and Acton 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Moberg et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleReviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
ISSN (print)0179-5953

Other styles