How to format your references using the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lloyd K (2015) MICROBIOLOGY. Beyond known methanogens. Science 350:384
A journal article with 2 authors
Braithwaite J, Spruit HC (2004) A fossil origin for the magnetic field in A stars and white dwarfs. Nature 431:819–821
A journal article with 3 authors
Wolfe CJ, Okubo PG, Shearer PM (2003) Mantle fault zone beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Science 300:478–480
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schmitt AM, Shi J, Wolf AM, et al (2006) Wnt-Ryk signalling mediates medial-lateral retinotectal topographic mapping. Nature 439:31–37

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Garrison DR, Vaughan ND (2007) Blended Learning in Higher Education. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, USA
An edited book
Joshi SN, Dixit US (eds) (2015) Lasers Based Manufacturing: 5th International and 26th All India Manufacturing Technology, Design and Research Conference, AIMTDR 2014. Springer India, New Delhi
A chapter in an edited book
Zhu M, Martínez S (2015) Distributed Resilient Formation Control. In: Martínez S (ed) Distributed Optimization-Based Control of Multi-Agent Networks in Complex Environments. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 91–118

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Scientists Discover Microbes That Have Remained Essentially Unchanged For 2 Billion Years. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976) Information Reported by Federal Organizations on the Purpose, Duration, and Cost Associated With Cable Television. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sammons JL (2012) Perceived benefits of and barriers to physical exercise in people with severe mental illness. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2000) Activists, Afterward. New York Times 141

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lloyd 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Braithwaite and Spruit 2004; Lloyd 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Braithwaite and Spruit 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Schmitt et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleReviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
ISSN (print)0179-5953

Other styles