How to format your references using the Critical Care Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Care Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang J: Genome-sequencing anniversary. Personal genomes: for one and for all. Science 2011; 331:690
A journal article with 2 authors
Portegies Zwart SF, van den Heuvel EPJ: A runaway collision in a young star cluster as the origin of the brightest supernova. Nature 2007; 450:388–389
A journal article with 3 authors
Halpin A, Johnson PJM, Miller RJD: Comment on “Engineering coherence among excited states in synthetic heterodimer systems.” Science 2014; 344:1099
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sjodt M, Brock K, Dobihal G, et al.: Structure of the peptidoglycan polymerase RodA resolved by evolutionary coupling analysis. Nature 2018; 556:118–121

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sundararajan D: Discretewavelet Transform. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Early Warning for Geological Disasters: Scientific Methods and Current Practice. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Vyroubalová E: Catholic and Puritan Conspiracies in Samuel Ward’s The Double Deliverance (1621). In: Gribben C, Spurlock S, editor(s). Puritans and Catholics in the Trans-Atlantic World 1600–1800. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 47–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Care Medicine.

Blog post
Davis J: North American Tribes Temporarily Halt Construction Of Pipeline In North Dakota [Internet]. IFLScience 2016; [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information Technology: Critical Factors Underlying Successful Major Acquisitions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estep KL: Outreach Communication by Grassroots Environmental Organizations: A Case Study. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G: Home Runs And Demons For Hamilton And Mantle. New York Times 2010; D1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Care Medicine
AbbreviationCrit. Care Med.
ISSN (print)0090-3493
ISSN (online)1530-0293
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

Other styles