How to format your references using the Critical Care Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Care Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson M: Chemistry masterclass. Nature 2013; 502:S49
A journal article with 2 authors
Suarez RK, Jones DR: Obituary: Peter W. Hochachka (1937-2002). Nature 2002; 420:140
A journal article with 3 authors
Ochedowski O, Bussmann BK, Schleberger M: Graphene on mica - intercalated water trapped for life. Sci Rep 2014; 4:6003
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shigeta M, Ohtsuka S, Nishikawa-Torikai S, et al.: Maintenance of pluripotency in mouse ES cells without Trp53. Sci Rep 2013; 3:2944

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aldridge P, O’Dwyer L: Practical Emergency and Critical Care Veterinary Nursing. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2013.
An edited book
Social Media for Government Services. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Schweitzer Y: Change of Mind-Set Following 9/11: The few that are already willing to Resort to Weapons of Mass Destruction. In: Green MS, Zenilman J, Cohen D, et al., editor(s). Risk Assessment and Risk Communication Strategies in Bioterrorism Preparedness. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007. p. 55–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Care Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E: Men and Women Could Use Different Cells to Process Pain [Internet]. IFLScience 2015; [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Telecommunications: History and Current Issues Related to Radio Spectrum Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carroll WE: Leadership and emotional intelligence: Ability-based and mixed models of emotional intelligence as predictors of leadership performance across manager levels. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K: A Piece of Obama’s Life, Post-Presidency: Sandwiches and Speeches. New York Times 2017; B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Care Medicine
AbbreviationCrit. Care Med.
ISSN (print)0090-3493
ISSN (online)1530-0293
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

Other styles