How to format your references using the Critical Care Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Care Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Burrows A: Supernova explosions in the Universe. Nature 2000; 403:727–733
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Fromherz P, Voelker M: Comment on “Detection, stimulation, and inhibition of neuronal signals with high-density nanowire transistor arrays.” Science 2009; 323:1429; author reply 1429
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Fialkov A, Barkana R, Visbal E: The observable signature of late heating of the Universe during cosmic reionization. Nature 2014; 506:197–199
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Hasselmann K, Latif M, Hooss G, et al.: The challenge of long-term climate change. Science 2003; 302:1923–1925

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Good PI: Introduction to Statistics through Resampling Methods and Microsoft Office Excel ®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1.
Computing with New Resources: Essays Dedicated to Jozef Gruska on the Occasion of His 80th Birthday. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Gorenstein MI: CRITICAL LINE OF THE DECONFINEMENT PHASE TRANSITIONS. In: Čechák T, Jenkovszky L, Karpenko I, editor(s). Nuclear Science and Safety in Europe. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 49–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Care Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrews R: Woman Finds Literal Nightmare Crawling Around Inside Her Head [Internet]. IFLScience 2017; [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/woman-literal-nightmare-crawling-inside-head/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office: Federal Transit Benefit Program: DOT’s Debit-Card Internal Controls Are Designed to Be Consistent with Federal Standards. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Warner T: California Assembly Bill 2404 Fair Play in Community Sports Act compliance procedures manual. 2015;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1.
Vecsey G: Bell Rings Again at Yankee Stadium. New York Times 2010; D5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Care Medicine
AbbreviationCrit. Care Med.
ISSN (print)0090-3493
ISSN (online)1530-0293
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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