How to format your references using the Critical Care Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Care Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Sime LC: Climate. Greenland deglaciation puzzles. Science 2014; 345:1116–1117
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Parmesan C, Yohe G: A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 2003; 421:37–42
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Legramandi MA, Schepens B, Cavagna GA: Running humans attain optimal elastic bounce in their teens. Sci Rep 2013; 3:1310
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Alt A, Lammens K, Chiocchini C, et al.: Bypass of DNA lesions generated during anticancer treatment with cisplatin by DNA polymerase eta. Science 2007; 318:967–970

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Wegener E: Montagegerechte Anlagenplanung. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2003.
An edited book
1.
Abdominal Imaging. Computational and Clinical Applications: Third International Workshop, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2011, Toronto, ON, Canada, September 18, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Goto Y, Shibata K: Emergence of Higher Exploration in Reinforcement Learning Using a Chaotic Neural Network. In: Hirose A, Ozawa S, Doya K, et al., editor(s). Neural Information Processing: 23rd International Conference, ICONIP 2016, Kyoto, Japan, October 16–21, 2016, Proceedings, Part I. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 40–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Care Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E: New Hypothesis For Mercury’s Unusual Formation [Internet]. IFLScience 2014; [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/new-hypothesis-mercury’s-unusual-formation/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office: Statutory Copyright Licensing: Implications of a Phaseout on Access to Television Programming and Consumer Prices Are Unclear. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Seesengood BN: Analysis of the Repairability of Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement. 2014;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Feeney K: I’m a Lumber Jack (Omelet, That Is). New York Times 2007; NJ6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Care Medicine
AbbreviationCrit. Care Med.
ISSN (print)0090-3493
ISSN (online)1530-0293
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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