How to format your references using the Critical Care Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical Care Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rokas A: Genetics. My oldest sister is a sea walnut? Science 2013; 342:1327–1329
A journal article with 2 authors
Teagle D, Ildefonse B: Journey to the mantle of the Earth. Nature 2011; 471:437–439
A journal article with 3 authors
Hathaway DH, Upton L, Colegrove O: Giant convection cells found on the Sun. Science 2013; 342:1217–1219
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dong C, Juedes AE, Temann UA, et al.: ICOS co-stimulatory receptor is essential for T-cell activation and function. Nature 2001; 409:97–101

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sarker SD, Nahar L: Chemistry for Pharmacy Students. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.; 2007.
An edited book
Institutions, Sustainability, and Natural Resources: Institutions for Sustainable Forest Management. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Kegl B, Kegl M, Pehan S: Effects of Biodiesel Usage on Injection Process Characteristics. In: Kegl M, Pehan S, editor(s). Green Diesel Engines: Biodiesel Usage in Diesel Engines. London: Springer; 2013. p. 127–152.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical Care Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E: Why Screen Time Before Bed Is Bad For Children [Internet]. IFLScience 2015; [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: GAO Update on the Number of Prekindergarten Care and Education Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gary M: Home Range and Habitat Use of Juvenile Green Turtles in a Shallow Tidal Environment. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR N: Putin Tightens His Grip on Russia’s Parliament With an Election Rout. New York Times 2016; A8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical Care Medicine
AbbreviationCrit. Care Med.
ISSN (print)0090-3493
ISSN (online)1530-0293
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

Other styles