How to format your references using the Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Osborne I S 2001 The attraction of magnetism Science 294 1483
A journal article with 2 authors
Prins G and Rayner S 2007 Time to ditch Kyoto Nature 449 973–5
A journal article with 3 authors
Penmatsa A, Wang K H and Gouaux E 2013 X-ray structure of dopamine transporter elucidates antidepressant mechanism Nature 503 85–90
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Wang S Q, Song L S, Lakatta E G and Cheng H 2001 Ca2+ signalling between single L-type Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors in heart cells Nature 410 592–6

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kushner R, Lawrence V and Kumar S 2013 Practical Manual of Clinical Obesity (Oxford: John Wiley & Sons)
An edited book
Peris-Ortiz M, Ferreira J J, Farinha L and Fernandes N O 2016 Multiple Helix Ecosystems for Sustainable Competitiveness (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Doerffer P, Hirsch C, Dussauge J-P, Babinsky H and Barakos G N 2011 Nozzle Forced Shock Oscillations with Wall Bump (Reynald Bur) Unsteady Effects of Shock Wave Induced Separation Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design ed C Hirsch, J-P Dussauge, H Babinsky and G N Barakos (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 135–61

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion.

Blog post
Carpineti A 2017 VISTA Uncovers New Secrets In The Orion Nebula IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1990 Customs Automation: Weakness in Revenue Collection at John F. Kennedy International Airport (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adetunji O O 2008 The Nature of Electronic States in Conducting Polymer Nano-Networks Doctoral dissertation (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrman J 2016 Mayer’s Media Problem at Yahoo Is Now Verizon’s New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePlasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
AbbreviationPlasma Phys. Control. Fusion
ISSN (print)0741-3335
ISSN (online)1361-6587
ScopeNuclear Energy and Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles