How to format your references using the Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Midgley P A 2011 Materials science. Electronic bonding revealed by electron diffraction Science 331 1528–9
A journal article with 2 authors
Brett M J and Hawkeye M M 2008 Materials science. New materials at a glance Science 319 1192–3
A journal article with 3 authors
Stephens D W, McLinn C M and Stevens J R 2002 Discounting and reciprocity in an Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma Science 298 2216–8
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Bello A, Chand A, Aviles J, Soule G, Auricchio A and Kobinger G P 2014 Novel adeno-associated viruses derived from pig tissues transduce most major organs in mice Sci. Rep. 4 6644

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Toy M 2012 Networks and Services (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Antoine J-P 2009 Partial Inner Product Spaces: Theory and Applications vol 1986, ed C Trapani (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Fritzsche B, Kirstein B and Mädler C 2012 On a Special Parametrization of Matricial α-Stieltjes One-sided Non-negative Definite Sequences Interpolation, Schur Functions and Moment Problems II ed D Alpay and B Kirstein (Basel: Springer) pp 211–50

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion.

Blog post
Carpineti A 2017 Researchers Build A Wire Three Atoms Wide IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1974 Subcontract Estimate For E-2c Passive Detection Systems in Prime Contract With Grumman Aerospace Corporation (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kehoe R M 2009 Parental long-term care choices from the perspectives of their sandwich-generation adult children Doctoral dissertation (Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K 2001 A Shelter Gets a Cold Shoulder In a “Pastoral” Residential Area New York Times 144

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePlasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
AbbreviationPlasma Phys. Control. Fusion
ISSN (print)0741-3335
ISSN (online)1361-6587
ScopeNuclear Energy and Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles