How to format your references using the Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alvarez M 2007 Follow the money Nature 446 230
A journal article with 2 authors
Whorton M R and MacKinnon R 2013 X-ray structure of the mammalian GIRK2-βγ G-protein complex Nature 498 190–7
A journal article with 3 authors
Kovács Á M, Téglás E and Endress A D 2010 The social sense: susceptibility to others’ beliefs in human infants and adults Science 330 1830–4
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Boutros M, Kiger A A, Armknecht S, Kerr K, Hild M, Koch B, Haas S A, Paro R, Perrimon N and Heidelberg Fly Array Consortium 2004 Genome-wide RNAi analysis of growth and viability in Drosophila cells Science 303 832–5

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Todinov M T 2005 Reliability and Risk Models (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Ervedoza S 2013 Numerical Approximation of Exact Controls for Waves ed E Zuazua (New York, NY: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Anglani A, Caricato P, Grieco A and Nucci F 2005 Selecting Capacity Plan Design of Advanced Manufacturing Systems: Models for Capacity Planning in Advanced Manufacturing Systems ed A Matta and Q Semeraro (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands) pp 191–231

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion.

Blog post
Andrew D 2016 Why Can’t We Remember Our Early Childhood? IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1996 Tax Systems Modernization: Actions Underway But Management and Technical Weaknesses Not Yet Corrected (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peacock C 2012 Design science research toward designing/prototyping a repeatable model for testing location management (LM) algorithms for wireless networking Doctoral dissertation (Minneapolis, MN: Capella University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira S 2017 A New Rating For Portrayals Of Gender New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePlasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
AbbreviationPlasma Phys. Control. Fusion
ISSN (print)0741-3335
ISSN (online)1361-6587
ScopeNuclear Energy and Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles