How to format your references using the Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang S C 2000 ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: In Search of Einstein’s Genius Science 289 1477
A journal article with 2 authors
Carrizosa E and Mempel T R 2015 Immunology: In the right place at the right time Nature 528 205–6
A journal article with 3 authors
Bernevig B A, Hughes T L and Zhang S-C 2006 Quantum spin Hall effect and topological phase transition in HgTe quantum wells Science 314 1757–61
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Paul E C, Hor-Meyll M, Ribeiro P H S and Walborn S P 2014 Measuring spatial correlations of photon pairs by automated raster scanning with spatial light modulators Sci. Rep. 4 5337

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson J B 2005 Digital Transmission Engineering (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Kawecka-Jaszcz K, Klocek M, Tobiasz-Adamczyk B and Bulpitt C J 2013 Health-Related Quality of Life in Cardiovascular Patients (Milano: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Kelly O 2011 Diagrammatic Inquiry Serious Educational Game Assessment: Practical Methods and Models for Educational Games, Simulations and Virtual Worlds ed L Annetta and S C Bronack (Rotterdam: SensePublishers) pp 57–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014 A Christmas Comet To Be Seen From Dark Skies IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1996 Federally Funded R&D Centers: Observations on DOD Actions To Improve Management (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson K L 2017 Putting together the pieces of a social cognition deficit: A retrospective case study Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J 2017 Bruce Arrived in Camp Expecting to Stay With Team New York Times B11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePlasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
AbbreviationPlasma Phys. Control. Fusion
ISSN (print)0741-3335
ISSN (online)1361-6587
ScopeNuclear Energy and Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles