How to format your references using the Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schwab M E 2002 Repairing the injured spinal cord Science 295 1029–31
A journal article with 2 authors
Sylwestrak E L and Ghosh A 2012 Elfn1 regulates target-specific release probability at CA1-interneuron synapses Science 338 536–40
A journal article with 3 authors
Davidson E M, Frothingham R and Cook-Deegan R 2007 Science and security. Practical experiences in dual-use review Science 316 1432–3
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Courcelle J, Donaldson J R, Chow K-H and Courcelle C T 2003 DNA damage-induced replication fork regression and processing in Escherichia coli Science 299 1064–7

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carroll N 2013 Minerva’s Night Out (Oxford: A John Wiley & Sons)
An edited book
Koss Md Fcrp Leopold 2012 Koss’s Cytology of the Urinary Tract with Histopathologic Correlations ed Hoda Md Fiac Rana (Boston, MA: Springer US)
A chapter in an edited book
Alperson-Afil N and Goren-Inbar N 2010 Discussion and Conclusions The Acheulian Site of Gesher Benot Ya’aqov Volume II: Ancient Flames and Controlled Use of Fire Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology ed N Goren-Inbar (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands) pp 73–98

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion.

Blog post
Luntz S 2014 Embryonic Stem Cells Cloned From Adult Skin IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1977 Need for Additional Internal Audit Coverage in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith M P 2009 De la página a la pantalla: Memoria de la Guerra Civil española en la narrativa contemporánea Doctoral dissertation (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B 2017 Season Over, the Rangers Are Left to Consider What Might Have Been New York Times B13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePlasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
AbbreviationPlasma Phys. Control. Fusion
ISSN (print)0741-3335
ISSN (online)1361-6587
ScopeNuclear Energy and Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles