How to format your references using the Annals of Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kronfeld AS (2008) Physics. The weight of the world is quantum chromodynamics. Science 322:1198–1199
A journal article with 2 authors
Klein G, Klein E (2001) Bridge or ravine? Nature 413:365
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang MC, O’Rourke EJ, Ruvkun G (2008) Fat metabolism links germline stem cells and longevity in C. elegans. Science 322:957–960
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cui H, Su J, Wei J, et al (2014) Elevated O₃ enhances the attraction of whitefly-infested tomato plants to Encarsia formosa. Sci Rep 4:5350

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Billingsley J (2006) Essentials of Mechatronics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Allen M, Mayes R, Rixen D (eds) (2014) Dynamics of Coupled Structures, Volume 1: Proceedings of the 32nd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2014. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Pang C, Gu L, Hansen D, Maeder A (2009) Privacy-Preserving Fuzzy Matching Using a Public Reference Table. In: McClean S, Millard P, El-Darzi E, Nugent C (eds) Intelligent Patient Management. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 71–89

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Human Experiments – The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Reported Year 2000 (Y2K) Readiness Status of 25 Large School Districts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia M (2015) A.R.T. / Atmospheric. Retail. Therapy. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
ADAM LIPTAK; Janet Roberts contributed reporting for this series. She was assisted by Linda Amster, Styczynski J, Anderson D, et al (2005) Locked Away Forever After Crimes as Teenagers. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kronfeld 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Klein and Klein 2001; Kronfeld 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Klein and Klein 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Cui et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Microbiology
AbbreviationAnn. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1590-4261
ISSN (online)1869-2044
ScopeApplied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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