How to format your references using the Annals of Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sack FD (2004) Plant sciences. Yoda would be proud: valves for land plants. Science 304:1461–1462
A journal article with 2 authors
Maslov S, Sneppen K (2002) Specificity and stability in topology of protein networks. Science 296:910–913
A journal article with 3 authors
Bowman D, King G, Tapponnier P (2003) Slip partitioning by elastoplastic propagation of oblique slip at depth. Science 300:1121–1123
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Riehle MM, Guelbeogo WM, Gneme A, et al (2011) A cryptic subgroup of Anopheles gambiae is highly susceptible to human malaria parasites. Science 331:596–598

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee JYB (2005) Scalable Continuous Media Streaming Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Nayak R, Zaki MJ (eds) (2006) Knowledge Discovery from XML Documents: First International Workshop, KDXD 2006, Singapore, April 9, 2006. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Hu G, Liu J, Li H, et al (2006) A Supervised Learning Approach to Entity Search. In: Ng HT, Leong M-K, Kan M-Y, Ji D (eds) Information Retrieval Technology: Third Asia Information Retrieval Symposium, AIRS 2006, Singapore, October 16-18, 2006. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 54–66

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Why We’re More Likely To Date Someone Who Has An Ex. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) [Response to Request for Comments on Federal Contribution to Corporation for Public Broadcasting]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bhavsar KS (2017) Application of wavelet on quasi-periodic physiologic signals. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas R, Walsh MW (2017) Hartford, With Finances in Disarray, Veers Toward Bankruptcy. New York Times A18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sack 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Maslov and Sneppen 2002; Sack 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maslov and Sneppen 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Riehle et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Microbiology
AbbreviationAnn. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1590-4261
ISSN (online)1869-2044
ScopeApplied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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