How to format your references using the Annals of Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Whorton M (2014) Structural biology: Calcium-activated proteins visualized. Nature 516:176–178
A journal article with 2 authors
Cruz A, Green BG (2000) Thermal stimulation of taste. Nature 403:889–892
A journal article with 3 authors
Haas W, Shepard BD, Gilmore MS (2002) Two-component regulator of Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin responds to quorum-sensing autoinduction. Nature 415:84–87
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Frey U, Brodbeck T, Majumdar A, et al (2005) Risk of severe asthma episodes predicted from fluctuation analysis of airway function. Nature 438:667–670

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fuller S (2005) RapidIO®: The Embedded System Interconnect. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Gkoulalas-Divanis A (2010) Association Rule Hiding for Data Mining. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Okawara W, Morita T, Yamaguchi T (2014) Implementing Mobility Service Based on Japanese Linked Data. In: Kim W, Ding Y, Kim H-G (eds) Semantic Technology: Third Joint International Conference, JIST 2013, Seoul, South Korea, November 28--30, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 51–66

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Whale Of A Problem: Why Do Humpback Whales Protect Other Species From Attack? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979) Supplemental Security Income Computerized System Development Process. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lanza KM (2008) The antecedents of automotive brand loyalty and repurchase intentions. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B (2017) The Last Shaman. New York Times C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Whorton 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Cruz and Green 2000; Whorton 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cruz and Green 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Frey et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Microbiology
AbbreviationAnn. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1590-4261
ISSN (online)1869-2044
ScopeApplied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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