How to format your references using the Annals of Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russell MJ (2003) Geochemistry. The importance of being alkaline. Science 302:580–581
A journal article with 2 authors
Langley JA, Megonigal JP (2010) Ecosystem response to elevated CO(2) levels limited by nitrogen-induced plant species shift. Nature 466:96–99
A journal article with 3 authors
Ben-David O, Cohen G, Fineberg J (2010) The dynamics of the onset of frictional slip. Science 330:211–214
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gong H, He Z, Peng A, et al (2014) Effects of several quinones on insulin aggregation. Sci Rep 4:5648

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blicq RS, Moretto LA (2015) Writing Reports to Get Results. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA
An edited book
Toulouevski YN (2015) Electric Arc Furnace with Flat Bath: Achievements and Prospects. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Wang P, He Y, Huang L (2010) Approaching the Optimal Schedule for Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks. In: Pandurangan G, Anil Kumar VS, Ming G, et al. (eds) Wireless Algorithms, Systems, and Applications: 5th International Conference, WASA 2010, Beijing, China, August 15-17, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 26–35

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Microbiology.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) What’s Up With The Weird Ring On This Woman’s Eye? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Radio Marti. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miranda PJ (2015) Tightly-coupled sulfur-cycling microbial mats of the White Point hydrothermal vent field, CA: An analog for deep-sea vents. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E (1994) PLAYING IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD. New York Times 148

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Russell 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Russell 2003; Langley and Megonigal 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Langley and Megonigal 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Gong et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Microbiology
AbbreviationAnn. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1590-4261
ISSN (online)1869-2044
ScopeApplied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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