How to format your references using the ICT Express citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ICT Express. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Bell, Neutral macroecology, Science. 293 (2001) 2413–2418.
A journal article with 2 authors
T.J. Bollyky, P.L. Bollyky, Science and government. Obama and the promotion of international science, Science. 338 (2012) 610–612.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.E. Penner, X. Dong, Y. Chen, Observational evidence of a change in radiative forcing due to the indirect aerosol effect, Nature. 427 (2004) 231–234.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Ugurlar, S.C. Howes, B.-J. de Kreuk, R.I. Koning, R.N. de Jong, F.J. Beurskens, J. Schuurman, A.J. Koster, T.H. Sharp, P.W.H.I. Parren, P. Gros, Structures of C1-IgG1 provide insights into how danger pattern recognition activates complement, Science. 359 (2018) 794–797.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Abraham, The Trend Following Bible, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
T. Proulx, ed., Nonlinear Modeling and Applications, Volume 2: Proceedings of the 28th IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2010, Springer, New York, NY, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Baronti, F. De Mari, R. van der Putten, I. Venturi, Sequences, in: F. De Mari, R. van der Putten, I. Venturi (Eds.), Calculus Problems, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 53–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ICT Express.

Blog post
T. Hale, Rare Baby Dinosaur Fossil Rescued By A Blackhawk Helicopter, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Special Education: Clearer Guidance Would Enhance Implementation of Federal Disciplinary Provisions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Gunther, The Effects of Writing Task Choice on Behavioral and Academic Outcomes of Students with ADHD, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleICT Express
AbbreviationICT Express
ISSN (print)2405-9595

Other styles