How to format your references using the ICT Express citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ICT Express. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Lüthi, Geophysics. Gauging Greenland’s subglacial water, Science. 341 (2013) 721–722.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.T. Wasan, A.D. Nikolov, Spreading of nanofluids on solids, Nature. 423 (2003) 156–159.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Bao, V.T. Chan, M.M. Merzenich, Cortical remodelling induced by activity of ventral tegmental dopamine neurons, Nature. 412 (2001) 79–83.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Pan, Y.H. Xie, Z.M. Deng, Y. Tang, D.D. Pan, High water level impedes the adaptation of Polygonum hydropiper to deep burial: responses of biomass allocation and root morphology, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5612.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Roy, G.V. Rao, Elements of Structural Dynamics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2012.
An edited book
S. Choi, ed., Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules, Springer, New York, NY, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
S.W. Liu, R.A. Vleugels, Livedo Reticularis, in: M. Matucci-Cerinic, D. Furst, D. Fiorentino (Eds.), Skin Manifestations in Rheumatic Disease, Springer, New York, NY, 2014: pp. 29–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ICT Express.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, Mesmerizing New NASA Video Shows Their Latest Rocket At Work, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Small Business Innovation Research: Observations on Agencies’ Data Collection and Eligibility Determination Efforts, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.A. Austin, Intravenous Exposure of Pregnant Mice to Silver Nanoparticles: Silver Tissue Distribution and Effects in Maternal and Extra-Embryonic Tissues and Embryos, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Rothenberg, Again Flashing Classic Form, Venus Williams Advances, New York Times. (2017) SP4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleICT Express
AbbreviationICT Express
ISSN (print)2405-9595

Other styles