How to format your references using the Plant Physiology and Biochemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kawakatsu, H., 2012. Geophysics. At the bottom of the oceanic plate. Science 335, 1448–1449.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lehner, N., Howk, J.C., 2011. A reservoir of ionized gas in the galactic halo to sustain star formation in the Milky Way. Science 334, 955–958.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meyron-Holtz, E.G., Ghosh, M.C., Rouault, T.A., 2004. Mammalian tissue oxygen levels modulate iron-regulatory protein activities in vivo. Science 306, 2087–2090.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Blight, S.K., Larue, R.C., Mahapatra, A., Longstaff, D.G., Chang, E., Zhao, G., Kang, P.T., Green-Church, K.B., Chan, M.K., Krzycki, J.A., 2004. Direct charging of tRNA(CUA) with pyrrolysine in vitro and in vivo. Nature 431, 333–335.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abdul-Rahman, Y., 2014. The Art of RF (Riba-Free) Islamic Banking and Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Baron, E. (Ed.), 2009. Light-Based Therapies for Skin of Color. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Keupp, M.M., Schöb, R., 2015. The potential of container vessel operation on the Northern Sea Route: Nautical, regulatory, and operative issues, in: Keupp, M.M. (Ed.), The Northern Sea Route: A Comprehensive Analysis. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden, pp. 53–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plant Physiology and Biochemistry.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. Why Are Some People Selfish? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Aviation Security: Federal Efforts to Secure U.S.-Bound Air Cargo Are in the Early Stages and Could Be Strengthened (No. GAO-07-660). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Accortt, E.E., 2009. Frontal alpha electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry as a risk factor for pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD); a psychophysiological and family history approach (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick, B., 2017. The Drift. New York Times D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kawakatsu, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Kawakatsu, 2012; Lehner and Howk, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lehner and Howk, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Blight et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlant Physiology and Biochemistry
AbbreviationPlant Physiol. Biochem.
ISSN (print)0981-9428
ScopePlant Science

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