How to format your references using the Criminal Justice Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Criminal Justice Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davis, M. E. (2002). Ordered porous materials for emerging applications. Nature, 417(6891), 813–821.
A journal article with 2 authors
Harpole, W. S., & Tilman, D. (2007). Grassland species loss resulting from reduced niche dimension. Nature, 446(7137), 791–793.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, K., Zhang, Y., & Lee, S. E. (2008). Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATM orthologue suppresses break-induced chromosome translocations. Nature, 454(7203), 543–546.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hajkova, P., Ancelin, K., Waldmann, T., Lacoste, N., Lange, U. C., Cesari, F., Lee, C., Almouzni, G., Schneider, R., & Surani, M. A. (2008). Chromatin dynamics during epigenetic reprogramming in the mouse germ line. Nature, 452(7189), 877–881.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson, A. (2014). Small Animal Pathology for Veterinary Technicians. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Chandrappa, R. (2012). Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice (D. B. Das, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sethi, S., & Ray, B. C. (2013). Mechanical Behavior of Polymer Composites at Cryogenic Temperatures. In S. Kalia & S.-Y. Fu (Eds.), Polymers at Cryogenic Temperatures (pp. 59–113). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Criminal Justice Studies.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, March 3). The Earth’s Mantle Is Hotter Than Anyone Previously Thought. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Bankruptcy Reform: Value of Credit Counseling Requirement Is Not Clear (GAO-07-203). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeRose, C. T. (2009). Electro-optic polymers: Materials and devices [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. (2006, October 21). Arts, Briefly; Shopping Picasso. New York Times, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Davis, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Davis, 2002; Harpole & Tilman, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Harpole & Tilman, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Lee et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hajkova et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleCriminal Justice Studies
AbbreviationCrim. Justice Stud. (Abingdon)
ISSN (print)1478-601X
ISSN (online)1478-6028

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