How to format your references using the Criminal Justice Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Criminal Justice Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vaux, D. L. (2012). Research methods: Know when your numbers are significant. Nature, 492(7428), 180–181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, G., & Goeddel, D. V. (2002). TNF-R1 signaling: a beautiful pathway. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5573), 1634–1635.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reinisch, K. M., Nibert, M. L., & Harrison, S. C. (2000). Structure of the reovirus core at 3.6 A resolution. Nature, 404(6781), 960–967.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tao, X., Avalos, J. L., Chen, J., & MacKinnon, R. (2009). Crystal structure of the eukaryotic strong inward-rectifier K+ channel Kir2.2 at 3.1 A resolution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5960), 1668–1674.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Balakrishnan, N., & Koutras, M. V. (2001). Runs and Scans with Applications: Balakrishnan/Runs. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Iosifidis, P. (2016). Public Spheres and Mediated Social Networks in the Western Context and Beyond (M. Wheeler, Ed.). Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Baru, C., Bhandarkar, M., Curino, C., Danisch, M., Frank, M., Gowda, B., Jacobsen, H.-A., Jie, H., Kumar, D., Nambiar, R., Poess, M., Raab, F., Rabl, T., Ravi, N., Sachs, K., Sen, S., Yi, L., & Youn, C. (2015). Discussion of BigBench: A Proposed Industry Standard Performance Benchmark for Big Data. In R. Nambiar & M. Poess (Eds.), Performance Characterization and Benchmarking. Traditional to Big Data: 6th TPC Technology Conference, TPCTC 2014, Hangzhou, China, September 1--5, 2014. Revised Selected Papers (pp. 44–63). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Criminal Justice Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, August 16). Food Poisoning Expert Reveals 6 Things He Refuses To Eat. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Protest of Air Force Contract Award (B-177968). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fang, L. (2015). Do media help deter financial misreporting? [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dao, J., & Walsh, M. W. (2011, September 19). Retiree Plans For Military Face Scrutiny. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vaux, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Chen & Goeddel, 2002; Vaux, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen & Goeddel, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Reinisch et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tao et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleCriminal Justice Studies
AbbreviationCrim. Justice Stud. (Abingdon)
ISSN (print)1478-601X
ISSN (online)1478-6028

Other styles