How to format your references using the Criminal Justice Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Criminal Justice Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pagel, M. (2008). Rise of the digital machine. Nature, 452(7188), 699.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shizuka, D., & Lyon, B. E. (2010). Coots use hatch order to learn to recognize and reject conspecific brood parasitic chicks. Nature, 463(7278), 223–226.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bordenstein, S. R., O’Hara, F. P., & Werren, J. H. (2001). Wolbachia-induced incompatibility precedes other hybrid incompatibilities in Nasonia. Nature, 409(6821), 707–710.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Farber, S. A., Pack, M., Ho, S. Y., Johnson, I. D., Wagner, D. S., Dosch, R., Mullins, M. C., Hendrickson, H. S., Hendrickson, E. K., & Halpern, M. E. (2001). Genetic analysis of digestive physiology using fluorescent phospholipid reporters. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5520), 1385–1388.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rhee, M. Y. (2013). Wireless Mobile Internet Security. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Apikyan, S., & Diamond, D. (Eds.). (2006). Countering Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Cerrito, L., Sicignano, L. L., Verrecchia, E., & Manna, R. (2015). Epidemiology of FMF Worldwide. In M. Gattorno (Ed.), Familial Mediterranean Fever (pp. 81–90). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Criminal Justice Studies.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, July 8). Molecules Have Been Built Using a Laser Beam for the First Time. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Telecommunications Readiness Critical, Yet Overall Status Largely Unknown (T-AIMD-98-212). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reehal, G. (2012). Designing Low Power and High Performance Network-on-Chip Communication Architectures for Nanometer SoCs [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2007, February 25). Old Graveyards Suffering The Ravages of Vandalism. New York Times, WE15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pagel, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Pagel, 2008; Shizuka & Lyon, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shizuka & Lyon, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Bordenstein et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Farber et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleCriminal Justice Studies
AbbreviationCrim. Justice Stud. (Abingdon)
ISSN (print)1478-601X
ISSN (online)1478-6028

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