How to format your references using the Criminal Justice Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Criminal Justice Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blow, N. (2009). Systems biology: Untangling the protein web. Nature, 460(7253), 415–418.
A journal article with 2 authors
Buschman, T. J., & Miller, E. K. (2007). Top-down versus bottom-up control of attention in the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5820), 1860–1862.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rulifson, E. J., Kim, S. K., & Nusse, R. (2002). Ablation of insulin-producing neurons in flies: growth and diabetic phenotypes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5570), 1118–1120.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chang, C. C., Nicholson, A. N., Rinaldi, E., Berkowitz, E., Garron, N., Brantley, D. A., … Walker-Loud, A. (2018). A per-cent-level determination of the nucleon axial coupling from quantum chromodynamics. Nature, 558(7708), 91–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bragg, S. M. (2011). The Controller’s Function. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hartmann, S., & Kern-Isberner, G. (Eds.). (2008). Foundations of Information and Knowledge Systems: 5th International Symposium, FoIKS 2008, Pisa, Italy, February 11-15, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Yongsunthon, R., Tao, C., Rous, P., & Williams, E. D. (2011). Surface Electromigration and Current Crowding. In M. Michailov (Ed.), Nanophenomena at Surfaces: Fundamentals of Exotic Condensed Matter Properties (pp. 113–143). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Criminal Justice Studies.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, June 15). Evidence For Explosive Volcanism On Mars May Rewrite Its Ancient History. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Protecting the Consumer From Potentially Harmful Shellfish (Clams, Mussels, and Oysters) (No. B-164031(2)). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Seymour, C. R. (2017). Natives Versus Exotics and Grasses Versus Forbs: A Long-Term Study of Vegetation in La Jolla Valley (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, S. M. (2015, January 18). Feast of Championships. New York Times, p. LI10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blow, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Blow, 2009; Buschman & Miller, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Buschman & Miller, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Rulifson, Kim, & Nusse, 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chang et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleCriminal Justice Studies
AbbreviationCrim. Justice Stud. (Abingdon)
ISSN (print)1478-601X
ISSN (online)1478-6028

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