How to format your references using the Criminal Justice Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Criminal Justice Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Foulger, G. R. (2006). Geophysics. Toward “supervolcano” technology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5788), 768–769.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wickens, M., & Kwak, J. E. (2008). Molecular biology. A tail tale for U. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5868), 1344–1345.
A journal article with 3 authors
Junker, J. P., Ziegler, F., & Rief, M. (2009). Ligand-dependent equilibrium fluctuations of single calmodulin molecules. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5914), 633–637.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lee, D., Kim, D., Kim, J., & Moon, J. (2014). Characterizing nano-scale electrocatalysis during partial oxidation of methane. Scientific Reports, 4, 3937.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kirchner, T. (2016). Merger Arbitrage. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Baltan, S., Carmichael, S. T., Matute, C., Xi, G., & Zhang, J. H. (Eds.). (2014). White Matter Injury in Stroke and CNS Disease (Vol. 4). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tveito, A., Langtangen, H. P., Nielsen, B. F., & Cai, X. (2010). Nonlinear Algebraic Equations. In H. P. Langtangen, B. F. Nielsen, & X. Cai (Eds.), Elements of Scientific Computing (pp. 99–145). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Criminal Justice Studies.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, May 26). The Ocean’s Beautiful Hidden World Of Plankton Revealed. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1971). Need To Strengthen Management Control Over the Basic Research Program Administered by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (B-170801). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoffmann, M. (2015). An exploratory study: Mobile device use for academics [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Weiner, J. (2014, March 26). A Fight Is Brewing. New York Times, MM52.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Foulger, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Foulger, 2006; Wickens & Kwak, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wickens & Kwak, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Junker et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lee et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCriminal Justice Studies
AbbreviationCrim. Justice Stud. (Abingdon)
ISSN (print)1478-601X
ISSN (online)1478-6028

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