How to format your references using the Criminal Justice Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Criminal Justice Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sternberg, P. W. (2004). Developmental biology. A pattern of precision. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5658), 637–638.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ausländer, S., & Fussenegger, M. (2014). Synthetic biology: Toehold gene switches make big footprints. Nature, 516(7531), 333–334.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peng, Y., Maiolino, R., & Cochrane, R. (2015). Strangulation as the primary mechanism for shutting down star formation in galaxies. Nature, 521(7551), 192–195.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Freudiger, C. W., Min, W., Saar, B. G., Lu, S., Holtom, G. R., He, C., Tsai, J. C., Kang, J. X., & Xie, X. S. (2008). Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5909), 1857–1861.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Windom, C. A., Sr., Gaidhani, H., & Fontana, A. (2010). Virtualizing. Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Lin, Z. (2011). Probability Inequalities (Z. Bai, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Levy, P. D., & Wheatley, M. A. (2012). Quality and Operational Metrics in Heart Failure. In W. F. Peacock (Ed.), Short Stay Management of Acute Heart Failure (pp. 45–58). Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Criminal Justice Studies.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, September 10). Scientists Fed Volunteers 6,000 Calories For Science. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). 1998 NASA Budget: Review of Selected Activities (NSIAD-97-252R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lam, G. (2017). A Mixed Methods Study Examining Teacher Impressions of a Psychoeducational Program on Common Issues During Childhood [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. (2016, October 8). Indians Channel Their Inner Cavaliers. New York Times, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sternberg, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Ausländer & Fussenegger, 2014; Sternberg, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ausländer & Fussenegger, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Peng et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Freudiger et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleCriminal Justice Studies
AbbreviationCrim. Justice Stud. (Abingdon)
ISSN (print)1478-601X
ISSN (online)1478-6028

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