How to format your references using the Criminal Justice Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Criminal Justice Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowie, J. U. (2013). Structural biology. Membrane protein twists and turns. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6118), 398–399.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baldauf, D., & Desimone, R. (2014). Neural mechanisms of object-based attention. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6182), 424–427.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rustagi, D., Engel, S., & Kosfeld, M. (2010). Conditional cooperation and costly monitoring explain success in forest commons management. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6006), 961–965.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Metcalf, D., Greenhalgh, C. J., Viney, E., Willson, T. A., Starr, R., Nicola, N. A., … Alexander, W. S. (2000). Gigantism in mice lacking suppressor of cytokine signalling-2. Nature, 405(6790), 1069–1073.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mix, P. E. (2004). Introduction to Nondestructive Testing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Noakes, D. L. G., Romero, A., Zhao, Y., & Zhou, Y. (Eds.). (2010). Chinese Fishes (Vol. 28). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Mazzola, G., Park, J., & Thalmann, F. (2011). The General Method of Creativity. In J. Park & F. Thalmann (Eds.), Musical Creativity: Strategies and Tools in Composition and Improvisation (pp. 17–19). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Criminal Justice Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, September 1). Male Fiddler Crabs Don’t Know What Female Fiddler Crabs Want. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Hydra 70 Rocket: Recent Performance Has Improved (No. NSIAD-99-126R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Learn, D. T. (2012). Differentiating instruction on the basis of cognitive tools: A case study of honors and mainstream middle school classes (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. (2005, December 3). Arts, Briefly; Russian Art Sets Records in London. New York Times, p. B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bowie, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Baldauf & Desimone, 2014; Bowie, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baldauf & Desimone, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Rustagi, Engel, & Kosfeld, 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Metcalf et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleCriminal Justice Studies
AbbreviationCrim. Justice Stud. (Abingdon)
ISSN (print)1478-601X
ISSN (online)1478-6028

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