How to format your references using the Islets citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Islets. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kwok PY. Genomics. Genetic association by whole-genome analysis? Science 2001; 294:1669–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richards TA, Gomes SL. Protistology: How to build a microbial eye. Nature 2015; 523:166–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Doebeli M, Hauert C, Killingback T. The evolutionary origin of cooperators and defectors. Science 2004; 306:859–62.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Benesh EC, Humphrey PA, Wang Q, Moley KH. Maternal high-fat diet induces hyperproliferation and alters Pten/Akt signaling in prostates of offspring. Sci Rep 2013; 3:3466.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCallum H. Population Parameters: Estimation for Ecological Models. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Spagnoletti P, editor. Organizational Change and Information Systems: Working and Living Together in New Ways. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Ting TCT. Explicit Secular Equations for Surface Waves in an Anisotropic Elastic Half-Space from Rayleigh to Today. In: Goldstein RV, Maugin GA, editors. Surface Waves in Anisotropic and Laminated Bodies and Defects Detection. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005. page 95–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Islets.

Blog post
Taub B. Mental Health And Romance Are The Roots Of Happiness, Study Finds [Internet]. IFLScience2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Agricultural Attache Role Overseas: What He Does and How He Can Be More Effective for the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sevier J. A preventative and treatment substance use program for GLBT adolescents in Long Beach: A grant proposal. 2013;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Mets Come Out Swinging Like Contenders. New York Times2016; :SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleIslets
ISSN (print)1938-2014
ISSN (online)1938-2022
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Other styles