How to format your references using the Modern Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modern Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Ploegh HL. A lipid-based model for the creation of an escape hatch from the endoplasmic reticulum. Nature 2007;448:435–438.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Richter JD, Sonenberg N. Regulation of cap-dependent translation by eIF4E inhibitory proteins. Nature 2005;433:477–480.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Waelti P, Dickinson A, Schultz W. Dopamine responses comply with basic assumptions of formal learning theory. Nature 2001;412:43–48.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Torres EM, Sokolsky T, Tucker CM, et al. Effects of aneuploidy on cellular physiology and cell division in haploid yeast. Science 2007;317:916–924.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Chu PP. RTL Hardware Design Using VHDL. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.
An edited book
1
Berghammer R, Möller B, Struth G, eds. Relations and Kleene Algebra in Computer Science: 10th International Conference on Relational Methods in Computer Science, and 5th International Conference on Applications of Kleene Algebra, RelMiCS/AKA 2008, Frauenwörth, Germany, April 7-11, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Wang G, Wang G, Wang F, et al. A Transcriptional Roadmap for Seed Development in Maize. In: Agrawal GK, Rakwal R, editors. Seed Development: OMICS Technologies toward Improvement of Seed Quality and Crop Yield: OMICS in Seed Biology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012. p. 81–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modern Pathology.

Blog post
1
Davis J. Extent Of Arctic AND Antarctic Sea Ice Reaches Lowest Ever Recorded [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016.[cited 30 October 2018]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/extent-of-arctic-and-antarctic-sea-ice-reaches-lowest-ever-recorded/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Intercity Passenger Rail: National Policy and Strategies Needed to Maximize Public Benefits from Federal Expenditures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Calhoun GF. Limit theory for overfit models. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Pilon M. Dead Heat Controversy Simply Will Not Die. New York Times. 2012;:B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleModern Pathology
AbbreviationMod. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0893-3952
ISSN (online)1530-0285
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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