How to format your references using the Modern Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modern Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Charo, R. A. SCIENCE AND GOVERNMENT. Yellow lights for emerging technologies. Science 349, 384–385 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
Day, M. & Morris, R. G. Memory consolidation and NMDA receptors: discrepancy between genetic and pharmacological approaches. Science 293, 755 (2001).
A journal article with 3 authors
Willis, G. L., Moore, C. & Armstrong, S. M. Parkinson’s disease, lights and melanocytes: looking beyond the retina. Sci. Rep. 4, 3921 (2014).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Vigsnaes, L. K., van den Abbeele, P., Sulek, K., Frandsen, H. L., Steenholdt, C., Brynskov, J. et al. Microbiotas from UC patients display altered metabolism and reduced ability of LAB to colonize mucus. Sci. Rep. 3, 1110 (2013).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Delgado, R. L.-C. & Araki, M. Spoken, Multilingual and Multimodal Dialogue Systems. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006).
An edited book
Date Palm Genetic Resources and Utilization: Volume 2: Asia and Europe. (Springer Netherlands, 2015).
A chapter in an edited book
Naqvi, S. W. A. Indian Ocean Margins. in Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes in Continental Margins: A Global Synthesis (eds. Liu, K.-K., Atkinson, L., Quiñones, R. & Talaue-McManus, L.) 171–210 (Springer, 2010).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modern Pathology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Could basic life exist on Titan? IFLScience (2013).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Lessons Learned for Protecting and Educating Children after the Gulf Coast Hurricanes. (2006).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzales, D. S. Identifying factors and quantifying their impact on transportation costs of pre-processes biomass. (Mississippi State University, 2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, S. What Women Lost. New York Times SR1 (2016).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleModern Pathology
AbbreviationMod. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0893-3952
ISSN (online)1530-0285
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles