How to format your references using the Modern Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modern Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sabeti P. Genome-sequencing anniversary. The landscape of human evolution. Science 2011;331:690.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kang B, Ceder G. Battery materials for ultrafast charging and discharging. Nature 2009;458:190–193.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pelupessy P, Rennella E, Bodenhausen G. High-resolution NMR in magnetic fields with unknown spatiotemporal variations. Science 2009;324:1693–1697.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wen J-D, Lancaster L, Hodges C, et al. Following translation by single ribosomes one codon at a time. Nature 2008;452:598–603.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Balani K, Verma V, Agarwal A, et al. Biosurfaces. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2014.
An edited book
Messina AR, ed. Inter-area Oscillations in Power Systems: A Nonlinear and Nonstationary Perspective. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Fikentscher W, Hacker P, Podszun R. Conclusion: the Concept of FairEconomy. In: Hacker P, Podszun R, editors. FairEconomy: Crises, Culture, Competition and the Role of Law. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013. p. 149–150.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modern Pathology.

Blog post
Davis J. Carbon Emissions In The UK The Lowest Since 1894 [Internet]. IFLScience. 2017.[cited 30 October 2018]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Athletes: Most Schools Meet Proposed Academic Performance Reporting Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Raines JR. Exploring differences in teacher attitudes and instructional strategies between traditional and block schedule high schools: A comparison of two large schools. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. A Noble Little Troupe Faces A Cruel Foe: the Rent. New York Times. 2003;:145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleModern Pathology
AbbreviationMod. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0893-3952
ISSN (online)1530-0285
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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