How to format your references using the Modern Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modern Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Showman, A. P. Astrophysics: Portrait of a dynamic neighbour. Nature 505, 625–626 (2014).
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwarzman, M. R. & Wilson, M. P. Science and regulation. New science for chemicals policy. Science 326, 1065–1066 (2009).
A journal article with 3 authors
Kalokairinou, L., Howard, H. C. & Borry, P. Science and Regulation. Changes on the horizon for consumer genomics in the EU. Science 346, 296–298 (2014).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kumar, S., Wesnousky, S. G., Rockwell, T. K., Ragona, D., Thakur, V. C. & Seitz, G. G. Earthquake recurrence and rupture dynamics of Himalayan Frontal Thrust, India. Science 294, 2328–2331 (2001).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Filla, J. J. & Brown, H. E. Prospect Research for Fundraisers. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013).
An edited book
Biometrics and ID Management: COST 2101 European Workshop, BioID 2011, Brandenburg (Havel), Germany, March 8-10, 2011. Proceedings. vol. 6583 (Springer, 2011).
A chapter in an edited book
Khan, M. A. & Zaki, Y. Dynamic Spectrum Trade and Game-Theory Based Network Selection in LTE Virtualization Using Uniform Auctioning. in Wired/Wireless Internet Communications: 9th IFIP TC 6 International Conference, WWIC 2011, Vilanova i la Geltrú, Spain, June 15-17, 2011. Proceedings (eds. Masip-Bruin, X., Verchere, D., Tsaoussidis, V. & Yannuzzi, M.) 39–55 (Springer, 2011).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modern Pathology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Hubble Offered A Rare, Ring-Side Seat At The Death Of A Star. IFLScience (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Guaranteed Student Loans: Comparisons of Single State and Multistate Guaranty Agencies. (1989).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams, C. D. Playing the Hungarian card: An assessment of radical right impact on Slovak and Hungarian party systems and post-Communist democratic stability. (University of North Carolina, 2013).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D. A. Go-To Gadgets. New York Times SPG5 (2008).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleModern Pathology
AbbreviationMod. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0893-3952
ISSN (online)1530-0285
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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