How to format your references using the Plant Diversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plant Diversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Feagin, R., 2009. Journal club. A coastal ecologist sees the hidden effects of hurricanes. Nature 461, 319.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sherman, G., Visscher, P.K., 2002. Honeybee colonies achieve fitness through dancing. Nature 419, 920–922.
A journal article with 3 authors
Manoharan, H.C., Lutz, C.P., Eigler, D.M., 2000. Quantum mirages formed by coherent projection of electronic structure. Nature 403, 512–515.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Larson, D.R., Zipfel, W.R., Williams, R.M., Clark, S.W., Bruchez, M.P., Wise, F.W., Webb, W.W., 2003. Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo. Science 300, 1434–1436.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hitz, B., Ewing, J.J., Hecht, J., 2005. Introduction to Laser Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Boehncke, W.-H., Radeke, H.H. (Eds.), 2007. Biologics in General Medicine. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Granados, A., Mayer, E., Norton, C., Ellis, D., Mobasheri, M., Low-Beer, N., Higham, J., Kneebone, R., Bello, F., 2014. Haptics Modelling for Digital Rectal Examinations, in: Bello, F., Cotin, S. (Eds.), Biomedical Simulation: 6th International Symposium, ISBMS 2014, Strasbourg, France, October 16-17, 2014. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 40–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plant Diversity.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Check Out What Pops Out When This Object Is Cut Open [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1982. Information on State Versus Local Administration of CETA Prime Sponsors in Michigan (No. HRD-82-117). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Desgens-Martin, V., 2014. High prevalence of carcinoma in California sea lions Zalophus californianus: Evidence of a xenobiotic-induced carcinogenic cascade? (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2016. The Mets Blow a Lead, but a Hunch Pays Off. New York Times B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Feagin, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Feagin, 2009; Sherman and Visscher, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sherman and Visscher, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Larson et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlant Diversity
AbbreviationPlant Divers.
ISSN (print)2468-2659

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