How to format your references using the Plant Diversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plant Diversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler, A., 2011. Archaeology. America’s lost city. Science 334, 1618–1623.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sneden, C., Cowan, J.J., 2003. Genesis of the heaviest elements in the Milky Way Galaxy. Science 299, 70–75.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gaudelli, N.M., Long, D.H., Townsend, C.A., 2015. β-Lactam formation by a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase during antibiotic biosynthesis. Nature 520, 383–387.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jiang, Z., Tamura, M., Fukagawa, M., Hough, J., Lucas, P., Suto, H., Ishii, M., Yang, J., 2005. A circumstellar disk associated with a massive protostellar object. Nature 437, 112–115.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levy, D., 2011. Practical Diabetes Care. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Batten, L., Li, G. (Eds.), 2016. Applications and Techniques in Information Security: 6th International Conference, ATIS 2016, Cairns, QLD, Australia, October 26-28, 2016, Proceedings, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Levin, R.J., 2011. Physiology of Orgasm, in: Mulhall, J.P., Incrocci, L., Goldstein, I., Rosen, R. (Eds.), Cancer and Sexual Health. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 35–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plant Diversity.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Despite Volkswagen Cheat, Clean Diesel Is Good Technology Today And For The Future [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Airline Deregulation: Changes in Airfares and Service at Buffalo, New York (No. T-RCED-99-286). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Evans, A.M., 2017. Long-Term Sustainability of Surgical Operational Improvements Post Consultancy: A Multiple Case Study Analysis (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017. Strange Weather. New York Times C11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lawler, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Lawler, 2011; Sneden and Cowan, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sneden and Cowan, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Jiang et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlant Diversity
AbbreviationPlant Divers.
ISSN (print)2468-2659

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