How to format your references using the Medical Microbiology and Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Microbiology and Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sultan F (2002) Analysis of mammalian brain architecture. Nature 415:133–134
A journal article with 2 authors
Birchler JA, Kavi HH (2008) Molecular biology. Slicing and dicing for small RNAs. Science 320:1023–1024
A journal article with 3 authors
Zeyl C, Vanderford T, Carter M (2003) An evolutionary advantage of haploidy in large yeast populations. Science 299:555–558
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bhardwaj PK, Kapoor R, Mala D, et al (2013) Braving the attitude of altitude: Caragana jubata at work in cold desert of Himalaya. Sci Rep 3:1022

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Katsilambros N, Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Liatis S, et al (2011) Diabetic Emergencies. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Pezzulo G, Butz MV, Castelfranchi C, Falcone R (2008) The Challenge of Anticipation: A Unifying Framework for the Analysis and Design of Artificial Cognitive Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Wattjes MP (2013) Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In: Wattjes MP, Fischer D (eds) Neuromuscular Imaging. Springer, New York, NY, pp 27–34

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Microbiology and Immunology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) Happy Birthday Philae: 7 Facts About The Amazing Comet Lander. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Office of Personnel Management: Retirement Systems Modernization Program Faces Numerous Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rich DW (2009) Examining the relationship of values-based management in performance evaluations. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2001) Skip the Climbing Wall: This Start-Up Just Wants to Hang On. New York Times H4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Microbiology and Immunology
AbbreviationMed. Microbiol. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0300-8584
ISSN (online)1432-1831
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles