How to format your references using the Medical Microbiology and Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Microbiology and Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lewontin R (2004) Evolution. Retrospective: in memory of John Maynard Smith (1920-2004). Science 304:979
A journal article with 2 authors
Victor DG, Kennel CF (2014) Climate policy: Ditch the 2 °C warming goal. Nature 514:30–31
A journal article with 3 authors
Kurland CG, Collins LJ, Penny D (2006) Genomics and the irreducible nature of eukaryote cells. Science 312:1011–1014
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Park S, Clark BL, Keszler DA, et al (2002) Low-temperature thin-film deposition and crystallization. Science 297:65

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Plumb JA, Hanson LA (2010) Health Maintenance and Principal Microbial Diseases of Cultured Fishes. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Beaufils P, Verdonk R (2010) The Meniscus. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Pistone G, Riccomagno E, Rogantin MP (2009) Methods in Algebraic Statistics for the Design of Experiments. In: Pronzato L, Zhigljavsky A (eds) Optimal Design and Related Areas in Optimization and Statistics. Springer, New York, NY, pp 97–132

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Microbiology and Immunology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) A Single Photon Entangles Thousands Of Atoms. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Comments on Deletion of FTS 2000 Provision from 1996 Appropriation Act. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mylonas A (2014) “Women are the pillars of the family”: Athenian women’s survival strategies during economic crisis. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B, Baker AL (2016) A Mother Slain on a Playground, a Sea of Witnesses Gone Silent. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Microbiology and Immunology
AbbreviationMed. Microbiol. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0300-8584
ISSN (online)1432-1831
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles