How to format your references using the Medical Microbiology and Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Microbiology and Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moreno E (2014) Cancer: Darwinian tumour suppression. Nature 509:435–436
A journal article with 2 authors
Canfield DE, Kump LR (2013) Geochemistry. Carbon cycle makeover. Science 339:533–534
A journal article with 3 authors
Bruhn D, Groebner N, Kohlstedt DL (2000) An interconnected network of core-forming melts produced by shear deformation. Nature 403:883–886
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Roati G, D’Errico C, Fallani L, et al (2008) Anderson localization of a non-interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. Nature 453:895–898

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Purkis S, Klemas V (2011) Remote Sensing and Global Environmental Change. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Raza H (2012) Graphene Nanoelectronics: Metrology, Synthesis, Properties and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Mohamed E, Mohamed E (2016) Islamists and New Media: The Muslim Brotherhood Digital Presence in English. In: Douai A, Ben Moussa M (eds) Mediated Identities and New Journalism in the Arab World: Mapping the “Arab Spring.” Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp 61–81

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Microbiology and Immunology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Giant Extinct Volcano Discovered In Pacific Ocean. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Mass Transit: Project Management Oversight Benefits and Future Funding Requirements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kaminsky E (2006) Schumann’s Op. 14: Original, Revised and Edited (“Concerto without Orchestra” versus Piano Sonata No. 3). Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Clarey C (2017) Controlling Her Emotions, and Now Elevating Her Game. New York Times B8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Microbiology and Immunology
AbbreviationMed. Microbiol. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0300-8584
ISSN (online)1432-1831
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles