How to format your references using the International Journal of Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ganem D. Virology. The X files--one step closer to closure. Science. 2001 Dec 14;294(5550):2299–2300.
A journal article with 2 authors
Poucet B, Sargolini F. Neuroscience. A trace of your place. Science. 2013 Apr 5;340(6128):35–36.
A journal article with 3 authors
Elsner JB, Kossin JP, Jagger TH. The increasing intensity of the strongest tropical cyclones. Nature. 2008 Sep 4;455(7209):92–95.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Basden AM, Young GC, Coates MI, Ritchie A. The most primitive osteichthyan braincase? Nature. 2000 Jan 13;403(6766):185–188.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Powsner RA, Palmer MR, Powsner ER. Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2013.
An edited book
Balas VE, Fodor J, Várkonyi-Kóczy AR, editors. New Concepts and Applications in Soft Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Andrievski RA, Khatchoyan AV. Mechanical Actions Effect upon Nanomaterials. In: Khatchoyan A, editor. Nanomaterials in Extreme Environments: Fundamentals and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 55–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Epidemiology.

Blog post
Fang J. Earliest Fossil Traces of Life Questioned [Internet]. IFLScience IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Revolving Funds: Additional Pricing and Performance Information for FAA and Treasury Funds Could Enhance Agency Decisions on Shared Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 May. Report No.: GAO-16-477.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baxter VP. Communitarian Leadership Practice Acquisition in Educational Leadership Preparation [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. Film Series. New York Times. 2017 Apr 20;C31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Epidemiology
AbbreviationInt. J. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0300-5771
ISSN (online)1464-3685
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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