How to format your references using the International Journal of Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tour JM. Materials chemistry: Seeds of selective nanotube growth. Nature. 2014 Aug 7;512(7512):30–31.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jenkins R, Burton AM. 100% accuracy in automatic face recognition. Science. 2008 Jan 25;319(5862):435.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hu DL, Chan B, Bush JWM. The hydrodynamics of water strider locomotion. Nature. 2003 Aug 7;424(6949):663–666.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schratt GM, Tuebing F, Nigh EA, et al. A brain-specific microRNA regulates dendritic spine development. Nature. 2006 Jan 19;439(7074):283–289.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fliszár S. Atomic Charges, Bond Properties, and Molecular Energies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Labuhn D. Keine Panik vor Thermodynamik!: Erfolg und Spaß im klassischen „Dickbrettbohrerfach“ des Ingenieurstudiums. 4., aktualisierte Auflage. Romberg O, editor. Wiesbaden: Vieweg+Teubner; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Camacho-Tapia N, Beltrán-Fernández JA, Gonzalez-Rebattú-y González M, et al. Numerical Study in Biomodels of Maxillofacial Prosthesis (Cancer and Osteonecrosis Cases). In: Öchsner A, Altenbach H, editors. Design and Computation of Modern Engineering Materials. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 59–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Epidemiology.

Blog post
Fang J. Dung Beetles Orient By Taking Snapshots Of Celestial Scenery [Internet]. IFLScience IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Railroad Safety: Continued Emphasis Needed for an Effective Track Safety Inspection Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Apr. Report No.: RCED-94-56.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
David SZ. A Practical Approach for Formation Damage Control in Both Miscible and Immiscible CO2 Gas Flooding in Asphaltenic Crude Systems Using Water Slugs and Injection Parameters [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Quain JR. When a Sound System Can Mean Life or Death. New York Times. 2016 Nov 10;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Epidemiology
AbbreviationInt. J. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0300-5771
ISSN (online)1464-3685
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles