How to format your references using the International Journal of Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koen D. Nuts and bolts. Nature. 2005 Feb 3;433(7025):554.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ćuk M, Stewart ST. Making the Moon from a fast-spinning Earth: a giant impact followed by resonant despinning. Science. 2012 Nov 23;338(6110):1047–1052.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ortega F, Escaso F, Sanz JL. A bizarre, humped Carcharodontosauria (Theropoda) from the lower cretaceous of Spain. Nature. 2010 Sep 9;467(7312):203–206.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mahajan S, Machabeli G, Osmanov Z, Chkheidze N. Ultra high energy electrons powered by pulsar rotation. Sci Rep. 2013 Feb 12;3:1262.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kang CW, Kvam PH. Basic Statistical Tools for Improving Quality. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Khoshnevisan D. From Lévy-Type Processes to Parabolic SPDEs. Schilling R, Utzet F, Quer-Sardanyons L, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Heine VM, Dooves S, Holmes D, Wagner J. Conclusions. In: Dooves S, Holmes D, Wagner J, editors. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Brain Diseases: Understanding the Methods, Epigenetic Basis, and Applications for Regenerative Medicine. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 55–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Epidemiology.

Blog post
Luntz S. Gluten-Destroying Drug Succeeds In Early Trial [Internet]. IFLScience IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Need for a National Weather Modification Reseach Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974 Aug. Report No.: B-133202.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Das A. Optimizing symbol timing, frequency spacing, and SNR estimation for communication systems [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stevenson A. Big Investors Ripe for a Fight. New York Times. 2017 Apr 25;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Epidemiology
AbbreviationInt. J. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0300-5771
ISSN (online)1464-3685
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles