How to format your references using the Plant and Soil citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plant and Soil. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mi B (2014) Materials science. Graphene oxide membranes for ionic and molecular sieving. Science 343:740–742
A journal article with 2 authors
Toyoshima C, Nomura H (2002) Structural changes in the calcium pump accompanying the dissociation of calcium. Nature 418:605–611
A journal article with 3 authors
O’Connor JE, Duda JJ, Grant GE (2015) Ecology. 1000 dams down and counting. Science 348:496–497
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Azaele S, Pigolotti S, Banavar JR, Maritan A (2006) Dynamical evolution of ecosystems. Nature 444:926–928

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tsujimura T (2017) OLED Display Fundamentals and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey
An edited book
Luján HD, Svärd S (eds) (2011) Giardia: A Model Organism. Springer, Vienna
A chapter in an edited book
Giorgetti A, Girgenti A, Citti P, Delogu M (2016) A Novel Approach for Axiomatic-Based Design for the Environment. In: Farid AM, Suh NP (eds) Axiomatic Design in Large Systems: Complex Products, Buildings and Manufacturing Systems. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 131–148

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plant and Soil.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Lab Worker Accidentally Infects Himself With Smallpox-Like Virus. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Aviation Noise: A National Policy is Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Butler ML (2017) Floating Homelands: Postnational Constructions of Home in Contemporary Africana Women’s Literature. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B (2016) Review: ‘Finding Babel’ Retraces a Celebrated Grandfather’s Footsteps. New York Times C7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mi 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Toyoshima and Nomura 2002; Mi 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Toyoshima and Nomura 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Azaele et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlant and Soil
AbbreviationPlant Soil
ISSN (print)0032-079X
ISSN (online)1573-5036
ScopePlant Science
Soil Science

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