How to format your references using the Plant and Soil citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plant and Soil. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zatz M (2005) Global voices of science. When science is not enough: fighting genetic disease in Brazil. Science 308:55–57
A journal article with 2 authors
Mojzsis SJ, Harrison TM (2002) Origin and significance of Archean quartzose rocks at Akilia, Greenland. Science 298:917; discussion 917
A journal article with 3 authors
Marshall CH, Pielke RA Sr, Steyaert LT (2003) Wetlands: crop freezes and land-use change in Florida. Nature 426:29–30
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Meinshausen M, Meinshausen N, Hare W, et al (2009) Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 degrees C. Nature 458:1158–1162

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cousley RRJ (2013) The Orthodontic Mini-Implant Clinical Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, West Sussex UK
An edited book
Chrisler JC, McCreary DR (eds) (2010) Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology: Volume 2: Gender Research in Social and Applied Psychology. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Butts J, Rice M, Shenoi S (2010) Modeling Control System Failures and Attacks – The Waterloo Campaign to Oil Pipelines. In: Moore T, Shenoi S (eds) Critical Infrastructure Protection IV: Fourth Annual IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference on Critical Infrastructure Protection, ICCIP 2010, Washington, DC, USA, March 15-17, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 43–62

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plant and Soil.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Scientists Identify The Neurons That Influence Alcoholism. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Social Security Administration’s Systems Modernization Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barnard S (2015) Police officers’ attitudes about rape victims. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barker K, Schwirtz M, Foderaro LW (2016) 2 Lives Collide in Fatal Night Inside Shelter. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zatz 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Mojzsis and Harrison 2002; Zatz 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mojzsis and Harrison 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Meinshausen et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlant and Soil
AbbreviationPlant Soil
ISSN (print)0032-079X
ISSN (online)1573-5036
ScopePlant Science
Soil Science

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