How to format your references using the Parasitology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parasitology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E.L. Rawlins, Stem cells: Emergency back-up for lung repair, Nature. 517 (2015) 556–557.
A journal article with 2 authors
U.G. Wortmann, A. Paytan, Rapid variability of seawater chemistry over the past 130 million years, Science. 337 (2012) 334–336.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.L. Mohanan, I.U. Arachchige, S.L. Brock, Porous semiconductor chalcogenide aerogels, Science. 307 (2005) 397–400.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B. Budowle, S.E. Schutzer, A. Einseln, L.C. Kelley, A.C. Walsh, J.A.L. Smith, B.L. Marrone, J. Robertson, J. Campos, Public health. Building microbial forensics as a response to bioterrorism, Science. 301 (2003) 1852–1853.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Wallgren, B. Wallgren, Register-Based Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
K. Passerini, Information Technology for Small Business: Managing the Digital Enterprise, Springer, New York, NY, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
M.V. Kozlov, E.L. Zvereva, Industrial barrens: extreme habitats created by non-ferrous metallurgy, in: R. Amils, C. Ellis-Evans, H. Hinghofer-Szalkay (Eds.), Life in Extreme Environments, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2007: pp. 69–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parasitology International.

Blog post
E. Andrew, This Is What Our Night Sky Would Look Like If Celestial Bodies Were Closer To Earth, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Funds: Fiscal Year 2001 Expenditures by Selected Organizations Involved in Health-Related Activities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.G. Rosenfeld, The ascent of women to senior leadership positions in the financial services industry: A phenomenological study, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LISA W. FODERARO; Reporting for this article was contributed by Ford Fessenden, as well as by Kathleen McGrory in Westchester, F. Akhtar, Sophia Chang on, J. Koblin, Nate Schweber in, A. Lazo, A.S. in Connecticut, That Sound You Hear? The Market Coming Down to Earth, New York Times. (2006) 14CN5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleParasitology International
AbbreviationParasitol. Int.
ISSN (print)1383-5769
Infectious Diseases

Other styles