How to format your references using the Parasitology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parasitology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.M. Michelson, Developmental biology. From genetic association to genetic switch, Science. 322 (2008) 1803–1804.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.M. Ionescu, H. Riel, Tunnel field-effect transistors as energy-efficient electronic switches, Nature. 479 (2011) 329–337.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Shi, Structure and mechanism of the S component of a bacterial ECF transporter, Nature. 468 (2010) 717–720.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Kramer, A.G. Lyne, J.T. O’Brien, C.A. Jordan, D.R. Lorimer, A periodically active pulsar giving insight into magnetospheric physics, Science. 312 (2006) 549–551.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Li, J. Lin, Microwave Noncontact Motion Sensing and Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
L. Liu, M.T. Özsu, eds., Encyclopedia of Database Systems, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Kruys, L. Qian, The Physics of Spectrum Sharing, in: L. Qian (Ed.), Sharing RF Spectrum with Commodity Wireless Technologies: Theory and Practice, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011: pp. 71–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parasitology International.

Blog post
T. Hale, Woman Taken To Hospital With Shark Still Attached To Her Arm, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Safety: FAA Has Not Fully Implemented Weather-Related Recommendations, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.K. Kraka, Assessment of herbicides for control of non-native species: Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne spp. multiflorum ), tropical spiderwort (Commelina benghalensis), and tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum), Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, Puerto Rico Unveils Painful Plan for Islanders, and Bond Holders, New York Times. (2015) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleParasitology International
AbbreviationParasitol. Int.
ISSN (print)1383-5769
Infectious Diseases

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