How to format your references using the Parasitology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parasitology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Friedman, The evolutionary origin of flatfish asymmetry, Nature. 454 (2008) 209–212.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.E. Grumbine, J. Xu, Environment and development. Mekong hydropower development, Science. 332 (2011) 178–179.
A journal article with 3 authors
Z.-F. Zhao, L.-Q. Dai, Y.-F. Zheng, Postcollisional mafic igneous rocks record crust-mantle interaction during continental deep subduction, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3413.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Brennan, C.C. Lu, D.P. Norris, T.A. Rodriguez, R.S. Beddington, E.J. Robertson, Nodal signalling in the epiblast patterns the early mouse embryo, Nature. 411 (2001) 965–969.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M.C. Smith, D.M. Sherman, Goat Medicine, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2009.
An edited book
M.F. Dollard, A. Shimazu, R. Bin Nordin, P. Brough, M.R. Tuckey, eds., Psychosocial Factors at Work in the Asia Pacific, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Maji, D.K. Pratihar, A.K. Nath, Numerical and Experimental Studies on Pulsed Laser Forming of Sheet Metal, in: S.N. Joshi, U.S. Dixit (Eds.), Lasers Based Manufacturing: 5th International and 26th All India Manufacturing Technology, Design and Research Conference, AIMTDR 2014, Springer India, New Delhi, 2015: pp. 55–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parasitology International.

Blog post
J. Davis, Red Squirrels In The UK Are Infected By Human Leprosy, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, GAO Rolodex Cards, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T.D. Quick, Faith-based charter school success at education ground zero, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, Big Little Snacks, New York Times. (2006) NJ15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleParasitology International
AbbreviationParasitol. Int.
ISSN (print)1383-5769
Infectious Diseases

Other styles