How to format your references using the Parasitology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parasitology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Lopez, Astronomy. The universe measured with a comb, Science. 321 (2008) 1301–1302.
A journal article with 2 authors
W.M. Getz, J.O. Lloyd-Smith, Comment on “On the regulation of populations of mammals, birds, fish, and insects” I, Science. 311 (2006) 1100; author reply 1100.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.A. Clark, P.P. Mitra, S.S. Wang, Scalable architecture in mammalian brains, Nature. 411 (2001) 189–193.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.E. Arvidson, F. Poulet, J.-P. Bibring, M. Wolff, A. Gendrin, R.V. Morris, J.J. Freeman, Y. Langevin, N. Mangold, G. Bellucci, Spectral reflectance and morphologic correlations in eastern Terra Meridiani, Mars, Science. 307 (2005) 1591–1594.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A.K. Maini, V. Agrawal, Satellite Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
J. Scheerens, ed., Informal Learning of Active Citizenship at School: An International Comparative Study in Seven European Countries, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Sinha, P. Roop, S. Basu, SoC Design Methodology, in: P. Roop, S. Basu (Eds.), Correct-by-Construction Approaches for SoC Design, Springer, New York, NY, 2014: pp. 73–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parasitology International.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “I Just Can’t Get You Out Of My Head”: How To Eradicate Earworms, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, DOD Automated Systems Security Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.J. Haug, A summer literacy intervention for struggling readers at the middle school level using strategies in comprehension, fluency, vocabulary, and positive school climate to improve reading comprehension: An evaluation study, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, ‘Jersey’ Seems to Be the Word, New York Times. (2010) E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleParasitology International
AbbreviationParasitol. Int.
ISSN (print)1383-5769
Infectious Diseases

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