How to format your references using the Parasitology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parasitology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Macilwain, Can Europe build a framework for success?, Nature. 473 (2011) 421.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.R. Grant, J.D.G. Jones, Hormone (dis)harmony moulds plant health and disease, Science. 324 (2009) 750–752.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Zikherman, R. Parameswaran, A. Weiss, Endogenous antigen tunes the responsiveness of naive B cells but not T cells, Nature. 489 (2012) 160–164.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Berthe, R. Stiufiuc, B. Grandidier, D. Deresmes, C. Delerue, D. Stiévenard, Probing the carrier capture rate of a single quantum level, Science. 319 (2008) 436–438.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N.-E. Choi, J.H. Han, How Flavor Works, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
F. Maggino, ed., A Life Devoted to Quality of Life: Festschrift in Honor of Alex C. Michalos, 1st ed. 2016, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Bhattacharjee, K. Das, M. De, D. De, SPICE Modeling and Analysis for Metal Island Ternary QCA Logic Device, in: J.K. Mandal, S.C. Satapathy, M. Kumar Sanyal, P.P. Sarkar, A. Mukhopadhyay (Eds.), Information Systems Design and Intelligent Applications: Proceedings of Second International Conference INDIA 2015, Volume 1, Springer India, New Delhi, 2015: pp. 33–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parasitology International.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, Researchers Reveal The Multi-Dimensional Universe Of The Brain, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Status of Office of Education’s National Direct Student Loan Funds at Selected Postsecondary Education Institutions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Litt, Social networking sites and adolescent alcohol use: The role of social images, social norms, and social comparison, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Paulson, ‘Amélie’ Musical to End Its Run on Broadway, New York Times. (2017) C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleParasitology International
AbbreviationParasitol. Int.
ISSN (print)1383-5769
Infectious Diseases

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