How to format your references using the Parasitology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parasitology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Kahan, Fixing the communications failure, Nature. 463 (2010) 296–297.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.S. Divakaruni, A.N. Murphy, Cell biology. A mitochondrial mystery, solved, Science. 337 (2012) 41–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Li, W.M. Saslow, V.L. Pokrovsky, Phase diagram for magnon condensate in Yttrium Iron Garnet film, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1372.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Mitra, N. Mukherjee, S. Das, P. Das, C.K. Panda, J. Chakrabarti, Anomalous altered expressions of downstream gene-targets in TP53-miRNA pathways in head and neck cancer, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6280.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H.F. Bender, Das Gefahrstoffbuch, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2002.
An edited book
L. Mamatas, I. Matta, P. Papadimitriou, Y. Koucheryavy, eds., Wired/Wireless Internet Communications: 14th IFIP WG 6.2 International Conference, WWIC 2016, Thessaloniki, Greece, May 25-27, 2016, Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
R.A. Maurya, J. Chae, H. Park, H. Yang, D. Song, K. Cho, Chromospheric Sunspot Oscillations in Hα and Ca ii 8542 Å, in: J. Chae (Ed.), Initial Results from the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS), Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 73–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parasitology International.

Blog post
B. Taub, Germany To Legalize Medical Marijuana Next Year, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NASA: Constellation Program Cost and Schedule Will Remain Uncertain Until a Sound Business Case Is Established, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.B. Rich, Guinevere takes her seat at the Round Table—or does she? Moving a primary Western myth forward, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Paulson, The Flea Makes a Big Move in TriBeCa, New York Times. (2017) C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleParasitology International
AbbreviationParasitol. Int.
ISSN (print)1383-5769
Infectious Diseases

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