How to format your references using the Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schlessinger J. Signal transduction. Autoinhibition control. Science 2003;300:750–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rajagopalan H, Lengauer C. Aneuploidy and cancer. Nature 2004;432:338–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taylor BW, Flecker AS, Hall RO Jr. Loss of a harvested fish species disrupts carbon flow in a diverse tropical river. Science 2006;313:833–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Song I, Zuckerman B, Weinberger AJ, Becklin EE. Extreme collisions between planetesimals as the origin of warm dust around a Sun-like star. Nature 2005;436:363–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mackenzie AFD. Places of Possibility. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Salinelli E. Modelli Dinamici Discreti. 2a edizione. Milano: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Ithier G, Nguyen F, Collin E, Boulant N, Meeson PJ, Joyez P, et al. Decoherence of a Quantum Bit Circuit. In: Duplantier B, Raimond J-M, Rivasseau V, editors. Quantum Decoherence: Poincaré Seminar 2005, Basel: Birkhäuser; 2007, p. 125–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Focus On Temperature Ignores Other Ways To Take The Planet’s Pulse. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Status of the Current Modernization Program and Planning for the Next Generation System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hintz L. Fighting for Us, Inside and Out: National Identity Contestation and Foreign Policy in Turkey. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lévy B-H, Soros G. Save the New Ukraine. New York Times 2015:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Phys. Rehabil. Med.
ISSN (print)1877-0657
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles