How to format your references using the Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adler M. Structural biology. How a neurotoxin survives. Science 2012;335:928–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pope BD, Gilbert DM. Genetics: Up and down in Down’s syndrome. Nature 2014;508:323–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Villegas P, Moretti P, Muñoz MA. Frustrated hierarchical synchronization and emergent complexity in the human connectome network. Sci Rep 2014;4:5990.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ruan C-Y, Lobastov VA, Vigliotti F, Chen S, Zewail AH. Ultrafast electron crystallography of interfacial water. Science 2004;304:80–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marteel-Parrish AE, Abraham MA. Green Chemistry and Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2013.
An edited book
Arora NK, editor. Plant Microbes Symbiosis: Applied Facets. New Delhi: Springer India; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Malone T, Jackman C. Spectatorship as Embodied Practice. In: Jackman C, editor. Adapting War Horse: Cognition, the Spectator, and a Sense of Play, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016, p. 39–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

Blog post
Davis J. Elon Musk Wants To Launch 4,000 Satellites That Will Provide Internet From Space. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Force Decision Not To Purchase Certain Automatic Data Processing Equipment Located at Its Environmental Technical Applications Center, Washington, D.C. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fu J. Tartuffe Lab: A developing work. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wassener B, Hui M. Hong Kong Rents Push Out Mom and Pop Stores. New York Times 2013:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Phys. Rehabil. Med.
ISSN (print)1877-0657
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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