How to format your references using the Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trenberth KE. Climatology (communication arising): rural land-use change and climate. Nature 2004;427:213; discussion 214.
A journal article with 2 authors
Behar SM, Baehrecke EH. Tuberculosis: Autophagy is not the answer. Nature 2015;528:482–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jacobson T, Liberati S, Mattingly D. A strong astrophysical constraint on the violation of special relativity by quantum gravity. Nature 2003;424:1019–21.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Stellamanns E, Uppaluri S, Hochstetter A, Heddergott N, Engstler M, Pfohl T. Optical trapping reveals propulsion forces, power generation and motility efficiency of the unicellular parasites Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Sci Rep 2014;4:6515.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kiehl AR, Mays MBC. Atlas for the Diagnosis of Tumors in the Dog and Cat. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Zanuttigh P. Time-of-Flight and Structured Light Depth Cameras: Technology and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Baranzini M, Mirante A. The Celebration of Oxbridge Scientists by Italian Economists and Institutions. In: Mirante A, editor. A Compendium of Italian Economists at Oxbridge: Contributions to the Evolution of Economic Thinking, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 193–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. This Machine Removes CO2 From The Air And Turns It Into Fertilizer. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Honeywell Computer Equipment Supplied to DOD. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chambers S. Telecommunications megamergers: Impact on employee morale and turnover intention. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gregory P. This Close to a Killer. New York Times 2013:MM36.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Phys. Rehabil. Med.
ISSN (print)1877-0657
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles