How to format your references using the Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kibble T. Gerald Guralnik (1936-2014). Nature 2014;510:36.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elderfield H, Rickaby RE. Oceanic Cd/P ratio and nutrient utilization in the glacial Southern Ocean. Nature 2000;405:305–10.
A journal article with 3 authors
Durham WM, Kessler JO, Stocker R. Disruption of vertical motility by shear triggers formation of thin phytoplankton layers. Science 2009;323:1067–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
De Nadal E, Zapater M, Alepuz PM, Sumoy L, Mas G, Posas F. The MAPK Hog1 recruits Rpd3 histone deacetylase to activate osmoresponsive genes. Nature 2004;427:370–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dvorak R, Lhotka C. Celestial Dynamics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
Roth R, Frost EAM, Gevirtz C, Atcheson CLH, editors. The Role of Anesthesiology in Global Health: A Comprehensive Guide. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee J, Cho H, Kim YS. Agile Supply Chain Decision Support System. In: Iyer LS, Power DJ, editors. Reshaping Society through Analytics, Collaboration, and Decision Support: Role of Business Intelligence and Social Media, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 29–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz S. Contraceptive Pill Could Help Recovery From Flu. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Use of Consultants by NASA. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1970.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brookman D. Establishing context for referents in online chatroom conversations. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. American Anarchist. New York Times 2017:C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Phys. Rehabil. Med.
ISSN (print)1877-0657
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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