How to format your references using the Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zweibel K. Engineering. The impact of tellurium supply on cadmium telluride photovoltaics. Science 2010;328:699–701.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bouwens RJ, Illingworth GD. Rapid evolution of the most luminous galaxies during the first 900 million years. Nature 2006;443:189–92.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pendry JB, Schurig D, Smith DR. Controlling electromagnetic fields. Science 2006;312:1780–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chia N-Y, Chan Y-S, Feng B, Lu X, Orlov YL, Moreau D, et al. A genome-wide RNAi screen reveals determinants of human embryonic stem cell identity. Nature 2010;468:316–20.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
zur Hausen H. Infections Causing Human Cancer. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2006.
An edited book
Macfarlane PW, van Oosterom A, Pahlm O, Kligfield P, Janse M, Camm J, editors. Comprehensive Electrocardiology. 2nd ed. London: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Jones S, Woglom JF. More on Nomos. In: Woglom JF, editor. On Mutant Pedagogies: Seeking Justice and Drawing Change in Teacher Education, Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2016, p. 71–7.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Arctic Ice Thinning At Worrisome Rate. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. College-and-Career Readiness: States Have Made Progress in Implementing New Standards and Assessments, but Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nikolova S. Health insurance transitions of SCHIP-eligible children in response to higher public premiums. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Court Opens Campaign Law to Challenges. New York Times 2006:A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Phys. Rehabil. Med.
ISSN (print)1877-0657
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles