How to format your references using the Planning Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Planning Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, O. “Biomedicine. Nota Bene. In the Nic of Time.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294, no. 5549 (December 7, 2001): 2118.
A journal article with 2 authors
Istvan, E. S., and J. Deisenhofer. “Structural Mechanism for Statin Inhibition of HMG-CoA Reductase.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292, no. 5519 (May 11, 2001): 1160–64.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krasnoshchekov, Dmitry N., Peter B. Kaazik, and Vladimir M. Ovtchinnikov. “Seismological Evidence for Mosaic Structure of the Surface of the Earth’s Inner Core.” Nature 435, no. 7041 (May 26, 2005): 483–87.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Williams, Tamara F., Adam C. Mirando, Barrie Wilkinson, Christopher S. Francklyn, and Karen M. Lounsbury. “Secreted Threonyl-TRNA Synthetase Stimulates Endothelial Cell Migration and Angiogenesis.” Scientific Reports 3 (2013): 1317.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Twomey, Brian. Inside the Currency Market. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
Bourassa, Martial G., and Jean-Claude Tardif, eds. Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Disease. Second Edition. Vol. 258. Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Berkowitz, Samuel. “Facial and Palatal Growth.” In Cleft Lip and Palate, edited by Samuel Berkowitz, 23–34. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Planning Perspectives.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “Male Hummingbirds Use Beaks As Daggers To Stab Opponents’ Throats.” IFLScience. IFLScience, November 4, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Readiness of Key State-Administered Federal Programs.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, October 6, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jensen, Drake. “Functional Analysis of Calmodulin’s Calcium Dependent Inactivation of Orai1.” Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben. “A Playwright Intent on Naming, and Goading, the Beast Within.” New York Times, September 17, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titlePlanning Perspectives
AbbreviationPlan. Perspect.
ISSN (print)0266-5433
ISSN (online)1466-4518
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

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