How to format your references using the Planning Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Planning Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Astin, Christina. “Helping Young Scientists to Speak for Themselves.” Nature 460, no. 7256 (August 6, 2009): 683.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prather, Michael J., and Juno Hsu. “Coupling of Nitrous Oxide and Methane by Global Atmospheric Chemistry.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 330, no. 6006 (November 12, 2010): 952–54.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakuno, Takeshi, Kenji Tada, and Yoshinori Watanabe. “Kinetochore Geometry Defined by Cohesion within the Centromere.” Nature 458, no. 7240 (April 16, 2009): 852–58.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhao, Lili, Lei Miao, Chengyan Liu, Chao Li, Toru Asaka, Yipu Kang, Yuji Iwamoto, Sakae Tanemura, Hui Gu, and Huirong Su. “Solution-Processed VO2-SiO2 Composite Films with Simultaneously Enhanced Luminous Transmittance, Solar Modulation Ability and Anti-Oxidation Property.” Scientific Reports 4 (November 11, 2014): 7000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kühn, Volker. Wireless Communications over MIMO Channels. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
Achterbergh, Jan. Organizations: Social Systems Conducting Experiments. Edited by Dirk Vriens. 2nd ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Cheikhrouhou, Lassaad, Georg Rock, Werner Stephan, Matthias Schwan, and Gunter Lassmann. “Verifying a Chipcard-Based Biometric Identification Protocol in VSE.” In Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 25th International Conference, SAFECOMP 2006, Gdansk, Poland, September 27-29, 2006. Proceedings, edited by Janusz Górski, 42–56. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Planning Perspectives.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “Researchers Identify Two New Genetic Variants Linked To Increased Breast Cancer Risk.” IFLScience. IFLScience, February 23, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Department of Housing and Urban Development: Lack of Accountability for Computer Equipment Leaves These Assets Vulnerable to Loss or Misappropriation.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, April 23, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hall, Keith E. “Transformational Leadership Practices of African-American Ministers at Predominantly African American Churches of Christ in Nashville, TN.” Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary. “Yogi Guardians, On a Healing Mission.” New York Times, July 31, 2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titlePlanning Perspectives
AbbreviationPlan. Perspect.
ISSN (print)0266-5433
ISSN (online)1466-4518
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

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