How to format your references using the Planning Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Planning Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sharpe, James. “Developmental Biology: Cells Unite by Trapping a Signal.” Nature 515, no. 7525 (November 6, 2014): 41–42.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kirkup, Benjamin C., and Margaret A. Riley. “Antibiotic-Mediated Antagonism Leads to a Bacterial Game of Rock-Paper-Scissors in Vivo.” Nature 428, no. 6981 (March 25, 2004): 412–14.
A journal article with 3 authors
Denholm, I., G. J. Devine, and M. S. Williamson. “Evolutionary Genetics. Insecticide Resistance on the Move.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 297, no. 5590 (September 27, 2002): 2222–23.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sytina, Olga A., Derren J. Heyes, C. Neil Hunter, Maxime T. Alexandre, Ivo H. M. van Stokkum, Rienk van Grondelle, and Marie Louise Groot. “Conformational Changes in an Ultrafast Light-Driven Enzyme Determine Catalytic Activity.” Nature 456, no. 7224 (December 18, 2008): 1001–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morley, David. Communications and Mobility. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2017.
An edited book
Koziel, Slawomir. Simulation-Driven Design by Knowledge-Based Response Correction Techniques. Edited by Leifur Leifsson. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Caldarini, Carla, Paola Catalano, Andrea Piccioli, Maria Silvia Spinelli, and Federica Zavaroni. “Oncologic Pathologies.” In Bones: Orthopaedic Pathologies in Roman Imperial Age, edited by Valentina Gazzaniga and Paola Catalano, 103–27. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Planning Perspectives.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “Switzerland Could Be Receiving Post by Drone.” IFLScience. IFLScience, July 11, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Media Contracts: Activities and Financial Obligations for Seven Federal Departments.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, January 13, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meza, Jessica. “A Community Outreach Program for Latino Immigrant Families: Increasing Service Utilization.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MERCED, Michael J. de la, and Michael Corkery. “Sale at Lord & Taylor: Start-Up Is Moving In.” New York Times, October 24, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titlePlanning Perspectives
AbbreviationPlan. Perspect.
ISSN (print)0266-5433
ISSN (online)1466-4518
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

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