How to format your references using the Geriatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geriatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blobel, G. Christian de Duve (1917-2013). Nature 2013, 498, 300.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tobisu, M.; Chatani, N. Chemistry. Remote Control by Steric Effects. Science 2014, 343, 850–851.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reichenbach, T.; Mobilia, M.; Frey, E. Mobility Promotes and Jeopardizes Biodiversity in Rock-Paper-Scissors Games. Nature 2007, 448, 1046–1049.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Langkjaer, R.B.; Cliften, P.F.; Johnston, M.; Piskur, J. Yeast Genome Duplication Was Followed by Asynchronous Differentiation of Duplicated Genes. Nature 2003, 421, 848–852.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Varrall, G. Making Telecoms Work; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781119967149.
An edited book
Modern Methods for Epidemiology; Tu, Y.-K., Greenwood, D.C., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2012; ISBN 9789400730236.
A chapter in an edited book
Blair, J.A. Argument Management, Informal Logic and Critical Thinking. In Groundwork in the Theory of Argumentation: Selected Papers of J. Anthony Blair; Tindale, C.W., Ed.; Argumentation Library; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2012; pp. 39–50 ISBN 9789400723627.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geriatrics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Hilarious Responses To Nobel Prize Winner Tim Hunt’s Sexist Comments Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Purchase and Preparation of Television Commercials by the Government; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1977;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mayner, S.W. Transformational Leadership and Organizational Change during Agile and Devops Initiatives. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O. Friday File. New York Times 2015, C25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeriatrics
AbbreviationGeriatrics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2308-3417

Other styles