How to format your references using the Geriatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geriatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Komander, D. Biochemistry. Details of destruction, one molecule at a time. Science 2015, 348, 183–184.
A journal article with 2 authors
LaRue, C.C.; Padilla, P.A. IBI series winner. A mutant search--Caenorhabditis elegans and gene discovery. Science 2012, 338, 487–488.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, L.; Leid, M.; Rothenberg, E.V. An early T cell lineage commitment checkpoint dependent on the transcription factor Bcl11b. Science 2010, 329, 89–93.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Malinina, L.; Malakhova, M.L.; Teplov, A.; Brown, R.E.; Patel, D.J. Structural basis for glycosphingolipid transfer specificity. Nature 2004, 430, 1048–1053.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gilmore, R.; Lefranc, M. The Topology of Chaos; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2011; ISBN 9783527639403.
An edited book
Advanced Pancreaticobiliary Endoscopy; Adler, D.G., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319268521.
A chapter in an edited book
Issa, T.; Isaias, P. Color, Prototyping and Navigation, Principles and Guidelines Design, Evaluation and Testing; Task Analysis. In Sustainable Design: HCI, Usability and Environmental Concerns; Isaias, P., Ed.; Springer: London, 2015; pp. 71–86 ISBN 9781447167525.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geriatrics.

Blog post
Hale, T. Archaeologists Dig Up Britain’s Oldest Handwritten Document In Central London Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Computer-Based Patient Records: VA and DOD Efforts to Exchange Health Data Could Benefit from Improved Planning and Project Management; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ekici, T. An Investigation of Credit Card Debt: The Effect of Price and Income Expectations and the Impact on Consumption. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University: Columbus, OH, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. In Suit, Ex-Employee Says Drug-Test Firm Mishandled Result. New York Times 2014, D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeriatrics
AbbreviationGeriatrics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2308-3417

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