How to format your references using the Geriatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geriatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holt, R. US Election: Politicians Should Think like Scientists. Nature 2012, 489, 493–494.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ibn-Elhaj, M.; Schadt, M. Optical Polymer Thin Films with Isotropic and Anisotropic Nano-Corrugated Surface Topologies. Nature 2001, 410, 796–799.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nishida, K.; Montagner, J.-P.; Kawakatsu, H. Global Surface Wave Tomography Using Seismic Hum. Science 2009, 326, 112.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yasunaga, M.; Furuta, M.; Ogata, K.; Koga, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.; Takigahira, M.; Matsumura, Y. The Significance of Microscopic Mass Spectrometry with High Resolution in the Visualisation of Drug Distribution. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3050.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shunmugaperumal, T. Biofilm Eradication and Prevention; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9780470640463.
An edited book
Animal Models of T Cell-Mediated Skin Diseases; Zollner, T., Renz, H., Asadullah, K., Eds.; Ernst Schering Research Foundation Workshop; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005; Vol. 50; ISBN 9783540210672.
A chapter in an edited book
Cevasco, R.; Moreno, D. Rural Landscapes: The Historical Roots of Biodiversity. In Italian Historical Rural Landscapes: Cultural Values for the Environment and Rural Development; Agnoletti, M., Ed.; Environmental History; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2013; pp. 141–152 ISBN 9789400753532.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geriatrics.

Blog post
Fang, J. Calorie-Free Sweetener Safe for Humans, Kills Fruit Flies Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Broadband: Intended Outcomes and Effectiveness of Efforts to Address Adoption Barriers Are Unclear; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2015;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shen, F.-Y. A Pedagogical and Analytic Comparison of Auguste Franchomme’s Twelve Caprices, Op. 7 and Alfredo Piatti’s Twelve Caprices, Op. 25. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati: Cincinnati, OH, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Winerip, M.; Schwirtz, M. Federal Inquiry on Rikers Turns to Union Chief. New York Times 2015, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeriatrics
AbbreviationGeriatrics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2308-3417

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