How to format your references using the Geriatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geriatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCann, K. Protecting Biostructure. Nature 2007, 446, 29.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cummings, C.A.; Relman, D.A. Genomics and Microbiology. Microbial Forensics--"cross-Examining Pathogens". Science 2002, 296, 1976–1979.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pascalis, O.; de Haan, M.; Nelson, C.A. Is Face Processing Species-Specific during the First Year of Life? Science 2002, 296, 1321–1323.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Formisano, V.; Atreya, S.; Encrenaz, T.; Ignatiev, N.; Giuranna, M. Detection of Methane in the Atmosphere of Mars. Science 2004, 306, 1758–1761.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wuestenberg, K. Clinical Small Animal Care; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Ames, Iowa, USA, 2012; ISBN 9781119264927.
An edited book
Thymic Development and Selection of T Lymphocytes; Boehm, T., Takahama, Y., Eds.; Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; Vol. 373; ISBN 9783642402517.
A chapter in an edited book
Girod, S.C. How to Align Individual Goals with Institutional Goals. In The Academic Medicine Handbook: A Guide to Achievement and Fulfillment for Academic Faculty; Roberts, L.W., Ed.; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; pp. 27–31 ISBN 9781461456926.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geriatrics.

Blog post
Fang, J. Turkey’s Oldest Stone Tool Pinpoints Human Migration to Europe Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Communications Commission: Competitive Bidding Procedures; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2000;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hurwitz, B.L. Viral Community Dynamics and Functional Specialization in the Pacific Ocean. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona: Tucson, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. Film Series in NYC This Week. New York Times 2016, C29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeriatrics
AbbreviationGeriatrics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2308-3417

Other styles