How to format your references using the Geriatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geriatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Muller, N.Z. Economics. Boosting GDP Growth by Accounting for the Environment. Science 2014, 345, 873–874.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sigloch, K.; Mihalynuk, M.G. Intra-Oceanic Subduction Shaped the Assembly of Cordilleran North America. Nature 2013, 496, 50–56.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rougier, G.W.; Apesteguía, S.; Gaetano, L.C. Highly Specialized Mammalian Skulls from the Late Cretaceous of South America. Nature 2011, 479, 98–102.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nicewarner-Pena, S.R.; Freeman, R.G.; Reiss, B.D.; He, L.; Pena, D.J.; Walton, I.D.; Cromer, R.; Keating, C.D.; Natan, M.J. Submicrometer Metallic Barcodes. Science 2001, 294, 137–141.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abid, M.M. Spacecraft Sensors; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2006; ISBN 9780470865293.
An edited book
Awange, J.L. Geospatial Algebraic Computations: Theory and Applications; Paláncz, B., Ed.; 3rd ed. 2016.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319254630.
A chapter in an edited book
Tonsberg, T.A.; Henderson, J.S. The Universality of Praxeology. In Understanding Leadership in Complex Systems: A Praxeological Perspective; Henderson, J.S., Ed.; Understanding Complex Systems; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 9–12 ISBN 9783319404448.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geriatrics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Quantum Dot Technology Could Lead To Solar Panel Windows Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Contract Pricing: A Low Percentage of Contractors Are Responsible for Most Reported Defective Pricing; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1992;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bebianno Simoes, M. Work and Social Activism in the Life Stories of Latina Domestic Workers. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J. Donkeys: The Facts. New York Times 2016, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeriatrics
AbbreviationGeriatrics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2308-3417

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