How to format your references using the Geriatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geriatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rouault, T.A. Cell biology. An ancient gauge for iron. Science 2009, 326, 676–677.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heller, R.C.; Marians, K.J. Replication fork reactivation downstream of a blocked nascent leading strand. Nature 2006, 439, 557–562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stewart, J.T.; Gaebler, J.P.; Jin, D.S. Using photoemission spectroscopy to probe a strongly interacting Fermi gas. Nature 2008, 454, 744–747.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Plesch, M.; Dahlsten, O.; Goold, J.; Vedral, V. Maxwell’s Daemon: information versus particle statistics. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6995.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henriksen, R.N. Scale Invariance; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2015; ISBN 9783527687343.
An edited book
Model Based Parameter Estimation: Theory and Applications; Bock, H.G., Carraro, T., Jäger, W., Körkel, S., Rannacher, R., Schlöder, J.P., Eds.; Contributions in Mathematical and Computational Sciences; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; Vol. 4; ISBN 9783642303661.
A chapter in an edited book
DeCapua, A. Adjectives and Adverbs. In Grammar for Teachers: A Guide to American English for Native and Non-Native Speakers; DeCapua, A., Ed.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2008; pp. 83–120 ISBN 9780387763316.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geriatrics.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Life Cycle Of Stars Captured In A Single Snapshot Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office National Airspace System: Observations on the Wide Area Augmentation System; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Heyen, C. Two predictors of smoking behaviors in the LGBTQ population: Anxiety and internalized homophobia. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G. Where the Artists Have Superpowers. New York Times 2012, BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeriatrics
AbbreviationGeriatrics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2308-3417

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