How to format your references using the Pituitary citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pituitary. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Redfield S (2012) Astronomy. Gathering interstellar gas. Science 336:1243–1244
A journal article with 2 authors
Rieseberg LH, Livingstone K (2003) Evolution. Chromosomal speciation in primates. Science 300:267–268
A journal article with 3 authors
Davis MC, Dahn RD, Shubin NH (2007) An autopodial-like pattern of Hox expression in the fins of a basal actinopterygian fish. Nature 447:473–476
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Donati J-F, Forveille T, Cameron AC, et al (2006) The large-scale axisymmetric magnetic topology of a very-low-mass fully convective star. Science 311:633–635

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ytterdal T, Cheng Y, Fjeldly TA (2003) Device Modeling for Analog and RF CMOS Circuit Design. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
P. Dicks A (2015) Green Chemistry Metrics: A Guide to Determining and Evaluating Process Greenness. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Contucci P, Giardinà C, Nishimori H (2009) Spin Glass Identities and the Nishimori Line. In: Monvel AB de, Bovier A (eds) Spin Glasses: Statics and Dynamics: Summer School, Paris 2007. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp 103–121

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pituitary.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) 10 Bizarre Medical Conditions. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Globe Safety Product’s Inquiry Regarding Firefighters Breathing Apparatus Developed for NASA by Scott Aviation Company. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Than K (2015) The impact of companion pets on the well-being of older adults. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG (2016) Brooklyn Gets a Superhero (and a Few Villains). New York Times MB4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePituitary
ISSN (print)1386-341X
ISSN (online)1573-7403
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Other styles