How to format your references using the Pituitary citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pituitary. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dennell R (2015) Palaeoanthropology: Homo sapiens in China 80,000 years ago. Nature 526:647–648
A journal article with 2 authors
Awasthi A, Kuchroo VK (2009) Immunology. The yin and yang of follicular helper T cells. Science 325:953–955
A journal article with 3 authors
Trautt ZT, Upmanyu M, Karma A (2006) Interface mobility from interface random walk. Science 314:632–635
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kanno Y, Kawashita E, Kokado A, et al (2014) α2AP mediated myofibroblast formation and the development of renal fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction. Sci Rep 4:5967

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mindham CN (2008) Roof Construction and Loft Conversion. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Mahmood Z (2014) Cloud Computing: Challenges, Limitations and R&D Solutions. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Wang X, Wang R (2011) Co-presence in Mixed Reality-Mediated Collaborative Design Space. In: Wang X, Tsai JJ-H (eds) Collaborative Design in Virtual Environments. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 51–64

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pituitary.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) CERN Just Released 300 Terabytes Worth Of Data To The Public. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Freight Rail Pricing: Contracts Provide Shippers and Railroads Flexibility, but High Rates Concern Some Shippers. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Altebarmakian T (2012) Salt of the Skin. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vlasic B, Chapman MM (2015) Smaller Pay Gap in New Contract at Fiat Chrysler. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePituitary
ISSN (print)1386-341X
ISSN (online)1573-7403
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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