How to format your references using the Hydrology and Earth System Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Edwards, E. A.: Microbiology. Breathing the unbreathable, Science, 346, 424–425, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Patel, M. R. and Shen, K.: RSY-1 is a local inhibitor of presynaptic assembly in C. elegans, Science, 323, 1500–1503, 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cao, Y. C., Jin, R., and Mirkin, C. A.: Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection, Science, 297, 1536–1540, 2002.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Dahan, M., Lévi, S., Luccardini, C., Rostaing, P., Riveau, B., and Triller, A.: Diffusion dynamics of glycine receptors revealed by single-quantum dot tracking, Science, 302, 442–445, 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cyr, K. S.: Microsoft® Exchange Server 2010 Administration, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2010.
An edited book
Assi, A.: Numerical Semigroups and Applications, edited by: García-Sánchez, P. A., Springer International Publishing, Cham, XIV, 106 p. 5 illus pp., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Erozan, Y. S. and Ramzy, I.: Other Non-neoplastic Conditions, in: Pulmonary Cytopathology, edited by: Ramzy, I., Springer US, Boston, MA, 87–99, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hydrology and Earth System Sciences.

Blog post
Australian Teens Catch “Sharknado” Moment On Camera:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Radio Communications: Congressional Action Needed to Ensure Agencies Collaborate to Develop a Joint Solution, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adler, A. D.: Change in Automatic and Strategic Cognition: An Examination of Cognitive Therapy for Depression, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K.: Tasting Every Calorie, New York Times, 24th May, NJ10, 2009.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Edwards, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Edwards, 2014; Patel and Shen, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Patel and Shen, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Dahan et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleHydrology and Earth System Sciences
AbbreviationHydrol. Earth Syst. Sci.
ISSN (print)1027-5606
ISSN (online)1607-7938

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