How to format your references using the Hydrology and Earth System Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jablonski, D.: Extinction: past and present, Nature, 427(6975), 589, 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meyer, G. and Brose, N.: Neuroscience. SPARring with spines, Science, 302(5649), 1341–1344, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rosenthal, Y., Linsley, B. K. and Oppo, D. W.: Pacific Ocean heat content during the past 10,000 years, Science, 342(6158), 617–621, 2013.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Towers, M., Mahood, R., Yin, Y. and Tickle, C.: Integration of growth and specification in chick wing digit-patterning, Nature, 452(7189), 882–886, 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Popescu, D., Gharbi, A., Stefanoiu, D. and Borne, P.: Process Control Design for Industrial Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2017.
An edited book
Geer, G. van der, Moonen, B. and Schoof, R., Eds.: Number Fields and Function Fields—Two Parallel Worlds, Birkhäuser, Boston, MA., 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Pathan, A.-S. K. and Hong, C. S.: Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, in Guide to Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, edited by S. Misra, I. Woungang, and S. Chandra Misra, pp. 59–96, Springer, London., 2009.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hydrology and Earth System Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: New York 2140: A Novelist’s Vision Of A Drowned City That Still Never Sleeps, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Higher Education: Issues Related to Law School Cost and Access, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parker, H. A.: Virtual Mate Poaching: A study of the tactics used to poach a potential mate on Social Networking Sites, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN., 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K.: Filipino Fast Food to Linger Over, New York Times, 18th March, NJ6, 2007.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jablonski, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Jablonski, 2004; Meyer and Brose, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Meyer and Brose, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Towers et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleHydrology and Earth System Sciences
AbbreviationHydrol. Earth Syst. Sci.
ISSN (print)1027-5606
ISSN (online)1607-7938

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