How to format your references using the Hydrology and Earth System Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greengard, P.: The neurobiology of slow synaptic transmission, Science, 294(5544), 1024–1030, 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
McFarland, E. W. and Tang, J.: A photovoltaic device structure based on internal electron emission, Nature, 421(6923), 616–618, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cabanes, C., Cazenave, A. and Le Provost, C.: Sea level rise during past 40 years determined from satellite and in situ observations, Science, 294(5543), 840–842, 2001.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Krusin-Elbaum, L., Newns, D. M., Zeng, H., Derycke, V., Sun, J. Z. and Sandstrom, R.: Room-temperature ferromagnetic nanotubes controlled by electron or hole doping, Nature, 431(7009), 672–676, 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hobkirk, J. A., Gill, D. S., Jones, S. P., Hemmings, K. W., Bassi, G. S., O’Donnell, A. L. and Goodman, J. R.: Hypodontia, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., West Sussex, UK., 2010.
An edited book
Linte, C. A., Yaniv, Z. and Fallavollita, P., Eds.: Augmented Environments for Computer-Assisted Interventions: 10th International Workshop, AE-CAI 2015, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2015, Munich, Germany, October 9, 2015. Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Stanescu, L., Dan Burdescu, D. and Brezovan, M.: Multimedia Medical Databases, in Biomedical Data and Applications, edited by A. S. Sidhu and T. S. Dillon, pp. 71–141, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2009.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hydrology and Earth System Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: How A Week Of Camping Resets The Body Clock, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Fees Allowed Nonsponsored Not-for-Profit Organizations by Various Government Agencies, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rankinen, W. A.: The Sociophonetic and Acoustic Vowel Dynamics of Michigan’s Upper Peninsula English, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN., 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B.: Tampa Teams Fund Removal of Monument, New York Times, 17th August, B10, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greengard, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Greengard, 2001; McFarland and Tang, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McFarland and Tang, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Krusin-Elbaum et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleHydrology and Earth System Sciences
AbbreviationHydrol. Earth Syst. Sci.
ISSN (print)1027-5606
ISSN (online)1607-7938

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