How to format your references using the Hydrology and Earth System Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Triendl, R.: Staffing shortage threatens Japan’s structural genomics, Nature, 410, 724, 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hunt, T. L. and Lipo, C. P.: Late colonization of Easter Island, Science, 311, 1603–1606, 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
Müller, K., Fedosov, D. A., and Gompper, G.: Margination of micro- and nano-particles in blood flow and its effect on drug delivery, Sci. Rep., 4, 4871, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Kiselev, S. I., Sankey, J. C., Krivorotov, I. N., Emley, N. C., Schoelkopf, R. J., Buhrman, R. A., and Ralph, D. C.: Microwave oscillations of a nanomagnet driven by a spin-polarized current, Nature, 425, 380–383, 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minenna, M.: The Incomplete Currency: The Future of the Euro and Solutions for the Eurozone, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
Abraham, A., Grosan, C., and Ishibuchi, H. (Eds.): Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithms, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XV, 404 p pp., 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Savva, S.: Re-imagining Schooling: Weaving the Picture of School as an Affinity Space for Twenty-First Century Through a Multiliteracies Lens, in: Reimagining the Purpose of Schools and Educational Organisations: Developing Critical Thinking, Agency, Beliefs in Schools and Educational Organisations, edited by: Montgomery, A. and Kehoe, I., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 49–64, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hydrology and Earth System Sciences.

Blog post
Stalagmites Preserve 3,000 Years of Northern Hemisphere Climate:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Preliminary Observations on Past, Present, and Future, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schreiber, J. S.: Discursive constructions of decline: Narratives of illness and financial stress among residents in assisted living, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: Court Limits Protection Against Improper Entry, New York Times, 16th June, A28, 2006.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Triendl, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Triendl, 2001; Hunt and Lipo, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hunt and Lipo, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Kiselev et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleHydrology and Earth System Sciences
AbbreviationHydrol. Earth Syst. Sci.
ISSN (print)1027-5606
ISSN (online)1607-7938

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