How to format your references using the Hydrology and Earth System Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Edlin, B. R.: Perspective: test and treat this silent killer, Nature, 474, S18-9, 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
Northrup, A. B. and MacMillan, D. W. C.: Two-step synthesis of carbohydrates by selective aldol reactions, Science, 305, 1752–1755, 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Uraguchi, D., Ueki, Y., and Ooi, T.: Chiral organic ion pair catalysts assembled through a hydrogen-bonding network, Science, 326, 120–123, 2009.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Schneider, T., Kruse, T., Wimmer, R., Wiedemann, I., Sass, V., Pag, U., Jansen, A., Nielsen, A. K., Mygind, P. H., Raventós, D. S., Neve, S., Ravn, B., Bonvin, A. M. J. J., De Maria, L., Andersen, A. S., Gammelgaard, L. K., Sahl, H.-G., and Kristensen, H.-H.: Plectasin, a fungal defensin, targets the bacterial cell wall precursor Lipid II, Science, 328, 1168–1172, 2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bunnell, T.: From World City to the World in One City, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
Fleiner, C. and Woodacre, E. (Eds.): Virtuous or Villainess? The Image of the Royal Mother from the Early Medieval to the Early Modern Era, Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, XIII, 256 p. 5 illus., 1 illus. in color pp., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Der, R. and Martius, G.: A General Approach to Self-Organization — Homeokinesis, in: The Playful Machine: Theoretical Foundation and Practical Realization of Self-Organizing Robots, edited by: Martius, G., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 75–106, 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hydrology and Earth System Sciences.

Blog post
This Math Question Baffled The Internet - Can You Solve It?, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Motor Carrier Safety: Additional Research Standards and Truck Drivers’ Schedule Data Could Allow More Accurate Assessments of the Hours of Service Rule, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kehoe, M. I.: Tobacco control: A qualitative assessment of the perceptions and practices of nurse practitioners, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: Justices to Enter the Debate Over Lethal Injection, New York Times, 26th September, A24, 2007.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Edlin, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Edlin, 2011; Northrup and MacMillan, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Northrup and MacMillan, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Schneider et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleHydrology and Earth System Sciences
AbbreviationHydrol. Earth Syst. Sci.
ISSN (print)1027-5606
ISSN (online)1607-7938

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