How to format your references using the Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sowers T. Late Quaternary atmospheric CH4 isotope record suggests marine clathrates are stable. Science 311: 838–840, 2006.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fries-Gaither J, Lightle K. SPORE series winner. Penguins and polar bears integrates science and literacy. Science 331: 413–414, 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuzuyama T, Noel JP, Richard SB. Structural basis for the promiscuous biosynthetic prenylation of aromatic natural products. Nature 435: 983–987, 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kim E, Kyhm J, Kim JH, Lee GY, Ko D-H, Han IK, Ko H. White light emission from polystyrene under pulsed ultra violet laser irradiation. Sci Rep 3: 3253, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vitale J. The Seven Lost Secrets of Success. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007.
An edited book
Musani MH. Clinical Pearls in Diagnostic Cardiac Computed Tomographic Angiography. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Bermejo E, Martínez-Frías ML. Prevention, Diagnosis and Services. In: Rare Diseases Epidemiology, edited by Posada de la Paz M, Groft SC. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, p. 55–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physiology.

Blog post
Luntz S. Liquid Water May Once Have Flowed On Vesta [Online]. IFLScience IFLScience: 2015. [30 Oct. 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Regulatory Flexibility in Schools: What Happens When Schools Are Allowed to Change the Rules? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adijanto J. Metabolic acid transport in human retinal pigment epithelium. University of Maryland, College Park: 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hardy M. In Houston, Juneteenth Site Rises From the Ruins. New York Times: A11, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2, 4).
This sentence cites four references (2, 4, 6, 8).

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysiology
AbbreviationPhysiology (Bethesda)
ISSN (print)1548-9213
ISSN (online)1548-9221

Other styles