How to format your references using the Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fink DW Jr. FDA regulation of stem cell-based products. Science 324: 1662–1663, 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shekhawat GS, Dravid VP. Nanoscale imaging of buried structures via scanning near-field ultrasound holography. Science 310: 89–92, 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gladyshev EA, Meselson M, Arkhipova IR. Massive horizontal gene transfer in bdelloid rotifers. Science 320: 1210–1213, 2008.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Brown S, Janssen M, Adumitroaie V, Atreya S, Bolton S, Gulkis S, Ingersoll A, Levin S, Li C, Li L, Lunine J, Misra S, Orton G, Steffes P, Tabataba-Vakili F, Kolmašová I, Imai M, Santolík O, Kurth W, Hospodarsky G, Gurnett D, Connerney J. Prevalent lightning sferics at 600 megahertz near Jupiter’s poles. Nature 558: 87–90, 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joyner M. Integration Marketing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009.
An edited book
Gilchrest BA, Krutmann J, editors. Skin Aging. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Lu W, Huang P. Glycolytic Pathway as a Target for Tumor Inhibition. In: The Tumor Microenvironment, edited by Bagley RG. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, p. 91–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Library of Congress opens online exhibit for Carl Sagan’s papers [Online]. IFLScience IFLScience: 2014.’s-papers/ [30 Oct. 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Education Taking Needed Actions But Work Remains. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nasrollahzadeh Y. Support group for caregivers of older adults affected by dementia: A grant proposal project. California State University, Long Beach: 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. A Heady Nightcap in a City Not Known for Sleeping. New York Times: SP5, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2, 4).
This sentence cites four references (3, 6–8).

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysiology
AbbreviationPhysiology (Bethesda)
ISSN (print)1548-9213
ISSN (online)1548-9221

Other styles