How to format your references using the Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lutkenhaus J. Biochemistry. Tinkering with acellular division. Science 320: 755–756, 2008.
A journal article with 2 authors
Armakolas A, Klar AJS. Left-right dynein motor implicated in selective chromatid segregation in mouse cells. Science 315: 100–101, 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu C-I, Shi S, Zhang Y-P. A case for conservation. Nature 428: 213–214, 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Del Negro C, Cappello A, Neri M, Bilotta G, Hérault A, Ganci G. Lava flow hazards at Mount Etna: constraints imposed by eruptive history and numerical simulations. Sci Rep 3: 3493, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stanoyevitch A. Introduction to Numerical Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations Using MATLAB®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004.
An edited book
Gough S, editor. Handbook of Incretin-based Therapies in Type 2 Diabetes. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
van Heesbeen RGHP, Medema RH. Kif15: A Useful Target for Anti-cancer Therapy? In: Kinesins and Cancer, edited by Frank KF. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2015, p. 77–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physiology.

Blog post
Davis J. Tea Consumption Might Alter Gene Expression In Women, But Not Men. IFLScience IFLScience: 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Early Childhood Programs: Characteristics Affect the Availability of School Readiness Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stone MA. A quantitative study of perceptions of female Air Force leaders. University of Phoenix: 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wasik JF. Trading Stocks for Bonds Poses Its Own Risks. New York Times: B4, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (3, 4).
This sentence cites four references (3, 5, 7, 8).

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysiology
AbbreviationPhysiology (Bethesda)
ISSN (print)1548-9213
ISSN (online)1548-9221

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