How to format your references using the Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Szyszka P. Ecology. Follow the odor. Science 344: 1454, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karels TJ, Boonstra R. Concurrent density dependence and independence in populations of arctic ground squirrels. Nature 408: 460–463, 2000.
A journal article with 3 authors
ffrench-Constant C, Colognato H, Franklin RJM. Neuroscience. The mysteries of myelin unwrapped. Science 304: 688–689, 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pappalardo L, D’Auria L, Cavallo A, Fiore S. Petrological and seismic precursors of the paroxysmal phase of the last Vesuvius eruption on March 1944. Sci Rep 4: 6297, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hanzo L, Keller T. OFDM and MC-CDMA. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
Jasmin J-F, Frank PG, Lisanti MP, editors. Caveolins and Caveolae: Roles in Signaling and Disease Mechanisms. New York, NY: Springer US, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Yu G, Liu Z, Yuan J. Discriminative Orderlet Mining for Real-Time Recognition of Human-Object Interaction. In: Computer Vision -- ACCV 2014: 12th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Singapore, Singapore, November 1-5, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Part V, edited by Cremers D, Reid I, Saito H, Yang M-H. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015, p. 50–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physiology.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Earth Was Mostly Vaporized By The Collision That Formed The Moon, Claims New Study [Online]. IFLScience IFLScience: 2016. [30 Oct. 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Personnel Security: Pass and Security Clearance Data for the Executive Office of the President. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haffner I. Experimental Investigation of Temperature Dependency in Transmission Characteristics of Liquid Crystals by Spectroscopy. University of Louisiana: 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly AL. The Struggle to Move Beyond ‘Why Me?’ New York Times: F5, 2007.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2, 4).
This sentence cites four references (2, 4, 6, 8).

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysiology
AbbreviationPhysiology (Bethesda)
ISSN (print)1548-9213
ISSN (online)1548-9221

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