How to format your references using the Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Corkum P. Laser physics. Attosecond pulses at last. Nature 403: 845–846, 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hartung T, Rovida C. Chemical regulators have overreached. Nature 460: 1080–1081, 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ferrari G, Stornaiuolo A, Mavilio F. Failure to correct murine muscular dystrophy. Nature 411: 1014–1015, 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jain A, Aravindan V, Jayaraman S, Kumar PS, Balasubramanian R, Ramakrishna S, Madhavi S, Srinivasan MP. Activated carbons derived from coconut shells as high energy density cathode material for Li-ion capacitors. Sci Rep 3: 3002, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kodama KP, Hinnov LA. Rock Magnetic Cyclostratigraphy. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
Wyld DC, Wozniak M, Chaki N, Meghanathan N, Nagamalai D, editors. Advances in Computing and Information Technology: First International Conference, ACITY 2011, Chennai, India, July 15-17, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Morrison EE. The APC-EB1 Interaction. In: APC Proteins, edited by Näthke IS, McCartney BM. New York, NY: Springer, 2009, p. 41–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Adidas Create a Shoe Made Almost Entirely From Ocean Garbage. IFLScience IFLScience: 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Assessment of the Teacher Corps Program at Western Carolina University and Participating Schools in North Carolina. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Che H. Non-linear development of streaming instabilities in magnetic reconnection with a strong guide field. University of Maryland, College Park: 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson G. The Gradual Extinction of Accepted Truths. New York Times: D6, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2, 4).
This sentence cites four references (2, 5, 6, 8).

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysiology
AbbreviationPhysiology (Bethesda)
ISSN (print)1548-9213
ISSN (online)1548-9221

Other styles