How to format your references using the Current Heart Failure Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Heart Failure Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ralph DC. The electromotive force of MnAs nanoparticles. Nature. 2011;474:E6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bays PM, Husain M. Dynamic shifts of limited working memory resources in human vision. Science. 2008;321:851–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Renvall V, Nangini C, Hari R. All that glitters is not BOLD: inconsistencies in functional MRI. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3920.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sun L, Banhart F, Krasheninnikov AV, Rodríguez-Manzo JA, Terrones M, Ajayan PM. Carbon nanotubes as high-pressure cylinders and nanoextruders. Science. 2006;312:1199–202.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Silvia JE. Dynamic Economic Decision Making. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Lantada AD, editor. Handbook on Advanced Design and Manufacturing Technologies for Biomedical Devices. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Brutinel ED, Gralnick JA. On the Role of Endogenous Electron Shuttles in Extracellular Electron Transfer. In: Gescher J, Kappler A, editors. Microbial Metal Respiration: From Geochemistry to Potential Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 83–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Heart Failure Reports.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Scientists have developed a prototype for self-replicating robots [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2013 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. National Laboratories: Are Their R&D Activities Related to Commercial Product Development? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Nov. Report No.: PEMD-95-2.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Witvorapong N. The Dynamics of Living Arrangements Among the Elderly [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Shear MD, Alcindor Y. Democrats on Tightrope In Immigration Debate. New York Times. 2017 Oct 1;A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Heart Failure Reports
AbbreviationCurr. Heart Fail. Rep.
ISSN (print)1546-9530
ISSN (online)1546-9549
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Emergency Medicine
Physiology (medical)

Other styles