How to format your references using the Current Heart Failure Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Heart Failure Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Brockhurst MA. Evolution. Sex, death, and the Red Queen. Science. 2011;333:166–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Saavedra S, Stouffer DB. “Disentangling nestedness” disentangled. Nature. 2013;500:E1-2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wilmé L, Goodman SM, Ganzhorn JU. Biogeographic evolution of Madagascar’s microendemic biota. Science. 2006;312:1063–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Suo S-B, Qiu J-D, Shi S-P, Chen X, Liang R-P. PSEA: Kinase-specific prediction and analysis of human phosphorylation substrates. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4524.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lau JYF. An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Creativity. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Kapur PK. Software Reliability Assessment with OR Applications. Pham H, Gupta A, Jha PC, editors. London: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Xiao W, Chu W, Lü Z, Ye T, Liu G, Cui S. A Population-Based Strategic Oscillation Algorithm for Linear Ordering Problem with Cumulative Costs. In: Middendorf M, Blum C, editors. Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial Optimization: 13th European Conference, EvoCOP 2013, Vienna, Austria, April 3-5, 2013 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Heart Failure Reports.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Canadian Weather Forecasters Forbidden From Discussing Climate Change [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. NASA: Agency Faces Challenges Defining Scope and Costs of Space Shuttle Transition and Retirement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Sep. Report No.: GAO-08-1096.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Little JL. The effects of a financial literacy intervention on teachers’ financial literacy, awareness, and advocacy [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Leland J. Milton Glaser Still Hearts New York. New York Times. 2016 Jul 31;MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Heart Failure Reports
AbbreviationCurr. Heart Fail. Rep.
ISSN (print)1546-9530
ISSN (online)1546-9549
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Emergency Medicine
Physiology (medical)

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