How to format your references using the Physiological Measurement citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physiological Measurement. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Austin J 2006 Salary survey. U.S. life scientists report rising salaries and high job satisfaction Science 314 842–7
A journal article with 2 authors
Bedalov A and Simon J A 2004 Neuroscience. NAD to the rescue Science 305 954–5
A journal article with 3 authors
Terrones H, López-Urías F and Terrones M 2013 Novel hetero-layered materials with tunable direct band gaps by sandwiching different metal disulfides and diselenides Sci. Rep. 3 1549
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Tsaousis A D, Kunji E R S, Goldberg A V, Lucocq J M, Hirt R P and Embley T M 2008 A novel route for ATP acquisition by the remnant mitochondria of Encephalitozoon cuniculi Nature 453 553–6

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Das J C 2015 Power System Harmonics and Passive Filter Designs (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc)
An edited book
Skorupa W and Schmidt H 2014 Subsecond Annealing of Advanced Materials: Annealing by Lasers, Flash Lamps and Swift Heavy Ions vol 192 (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Nakamura S, Konishi S, Jatowt A, Ohshima H, Kondo H, Tezuka T, Oyama S and Tanaka K 2007 Trustworthiness Analysis of Web Search Results Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries: 11th European Conference, ECDL 2007, Budapest, Hungary, September 16-21, 2007. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed L Kovács, N Fuhr and C Meghini (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 38–49

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physiological Measurement.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014 Apparently, Burning NH4Cr2O7 With HgSCN Opens A Portal To Hell IFLScience Online:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1992 Federal Research: Small Business Innovation Research Program Shows Success but Can Be Strengthened (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bowles A 2012 The development of a standard of care for competency to stand trial evaluations Doctoral dissertation (Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J 2016 The Lost Battle That Helped Win the Revolution New York Times A15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Austin 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Austin 2006, Bedalov and Simon 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bedalov and Simon 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Tsaousis et al 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysiological Measurement
AbbreviationPhysiol. Meas.
ISSN (print)0967-3334
ISSN (online)1361-6579
Biomedical Engineering
Physiology (medical)

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