How to format your references using the Physiological Measurement citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physiological Measurement. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schilling G 2000 ASTRONOMY: The Virtual Observatory Moves Closer to Reality Science 289 238a–9a
A journal article with 2 authors
Boss P K and Thomas M R 2002 Association of dwarfism and floral induction with a grape “green revolution” mutation Nature 416 847–50
A journal article with 3 authors
Green J L, Bohannan B J M and Whitaker R J 2008 Microbial biogeography: from taxonomy to traits Science 320 1039–43
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Nelissen K, Luppino G, Vanduffel W, Rizzolatti G and Orban G A 2005 Observing others: multiple action representation in the frontal lobe Science 310 332–6

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allerton D 2009 Principles of Flight Simulation (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Constanda C and Potapenko S 2008 Integral Methods in Science and Engineering: Techniques and Applications (Boston, MA: Birkhäuser)
A chapter in an edited book
Hemmati H, Gupta D and Basu C 2015 Molecular Physiology of Heat Stress Responses in Plants Elucidation of Abiotic Stress Signaling in Plants: Functional Genomics Perspectives, Volume 2 ed G K Pandey (New York, NY: Springer) pp 109–42

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physiological Measurement.

Blog post
Davis J 2015 Predatory Cockroach From The Age Of The Dinosaurs Discovered Trapped In Amber IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2000 Biotechnology: Information on Prices of Genetically Modified Seeds in the United States and Argentina (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barnard S 2015 Police officers’ attitudes about rape victims Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis A 2015 New Girl in School: Transgender Surgery at 18 New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schilling 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Schilling 2000, Boss and Thomas 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boss and Thomas 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Nelissen et al 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysiological Measurement
AbbreviationPhysiol. Meas.
ISSN (print)0967-3334
ISSN (online)1361-6579
Biomedical Engineering
Physiology (medical)

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