How to format your references using the Physiological Measurement citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physiological Measurement. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jenkins A 2004 Graduate journal: a tough challenge Nature 427 378
A journal article with 2 authors
Falk A and Szech N 2013 Morals and markets Science 340 707–11
A journal article with 3 authors
Binshtok A M, Bean B P and Woolf C J 2007 Inhibition of nociceptors by TRPV1-mediated entry of impermeant sodium channel blockers Nature 449 607–10
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Vacic V, McCarthy S, Malhotra D, Murray F, Chou H-H, Peoples A, Makarov V, Yoon S, Bhandari A, Corominas R, Iakoucheva L M, Krastoshevsky O, Krause V, Larach-Walters V, Welsh D K, Craig D, Kelsoe J R, Gershon E S, Leal S M, Dell Aquila M, Morris D W, Gill M, Corvin A, Insel P A, McClellan J, King M-C, Karayiorgou M, Levy D L, DeLisi L E and Sebat J 2011 Duplications of the neuropeptide receptor gene VIPR2 confer significant risk for schizophrenia Nature 471 499–503

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mang T, Bobzin K and Bartels T 2010 Industrial Tribology (Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA)
An edited book
Kerren A, Purchase H C and Ward M O 2014 Multivariate Network Visualization: Dagstuhl Seminar #13201, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, May 12-17, 2013, Revised Discussions vol 8380 (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Russo G and Giglio C 2010 Arterie bronchiali e vasi dei circoli cavale e polmonare Anatomia TC multidetettore — Body ed L Romano, S Fulciniti and M Silva (Milano: Springer) pp 29–35

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physiological Measurement.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014 Images Of North Korea At Night IFLScience Online:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2005 Special Education: Children With Autism (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Westgate M 2009 La Boutique Fantasque: A full score edition for wind band Doctoral dissertation (Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Scott M 2017 Google Is Fined $2.7 Billion for Crowding Out European Rivals New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jenkins 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Jenkins 2004, Falk and Szech 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Falk and Szech 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Vacic et al 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysiological Measurement
AbbreviationPhysiol. Meas.
ISSN (print)0967-3334
ISSN (online)1361-6579
Biomedical Engineering
Physiology (medical)

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