How to format your references using the Physiological Measurement citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physiological Measurement. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Le Quéré C 2009 Journal club. An oceanographer marvels at the good timing of shrimp Nature 461 1031
A journal article with 2 authors
Pollard D and DeConto R M 2009 Modelling West Antarctic ice sheet growth and collapse through the past five million years Nature 458 329–32
A journal article with 3 authors
Corominas-Murtra B, Fortuny J and Solé R V 2014 Towards a mathematical theory of meaningful communication Sci. Rep. 4 4587
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Sobol R W, Prasad R, Evenski A, Baker A, Yang X P, Horton J K and Wilson S H 2000 The lyase activity of the DNA repair protein beta-polymerase protects from DNA-damage-induced cytotoxicity Nature 405 807–10

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simon J 2017 Banach, Fréchet, Hilbert and Neumann Spaces (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Assi A 2016 Numerical Semigroups and Applications vol 1, ed P A García-Sánchez (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Ozel I and Atiyas İ 2011 Regulatory Diffusion in Turkey: A Cross-sectoral Assessment The Political Economy of Regulation in Turkey ed T Çetin and F Oğuz (New York, NY: Springer) pp 51–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physiological Measurement.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 Why You Shouldn’t Get Too Excited About The Mars One Mission IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1992 Mass Transit Grants: If Properly Implemented, FTA Initiatives Should Improve Oversight (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Karriem K L 2010 The relationship between stress and emotional intelligence among direct-care workers Doctoral dissertation (Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines G G 2016 A Superhero Who Defies Gravity, Despite a Heavy Burden New York Times C4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Le Quéré 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Le Quéré 2009, Pollard and DeConto 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pollard and DeConto 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Sobol et al 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysiological Measurement
AbbreviationPhysiol. Meas.
ISSN (print)0967-3334
ISSN (online)1361-6579
Biomedical Engineering
Physiology (medical)

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