How to format your references using the Physiological Measurement citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physiological Measurement. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bilkey D K 2004 Neuroscience. In the place space Science 305 1245–6
A journal article with 2 authors
Xu L and Chen H 2014 Logarithm conformal mapping brings the cloaking effect Sci. Rep. 4 6862
A journal article with 3 authors
Niu M, Cheng D and Cao D 2014 SiH/TiO2 and GeH/TiO2 heterojunctions: promising TiO2-based photocatalysts under visible light Sci. Rep. 4 4810
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Banu N, Chia A, Ho Z Z, Garcia A T, Paravasivam K, Grotenbreg G M, Bertoletti A and Gehring A J 2014 Building and optimizing a virus-specific T cell receptor library for targeted immunotherapy in viral infections Sci. Rep. 4 4166

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marcus Y 2012 Supercritical Water (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Tapper T 2011 Oxford, the Collegiate University: Conflict, Consensus and Continuity vol 34, ed D Palfreyman (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands)
A chapter in an edited book
Sakio H, Kubo M, Shimano K and Ohno K 2008 Coexistence mechanisms of three riparian species in the upper basin with respect to their life histories, ecophysiology, and disturbance regimes Ecology of Riparian Forests in Japan: Disturbance, Life History, and Regeneration ed H Sakio and T Tamura (Tokyo: Springer Japan) pp 75–90

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physiological Measurement.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 The River Nile As Seen From Space IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1998 Airline Competition: Cargo Airline Has Enhanced Competition in Hawaii but Faces an Uncertain Future (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barger B 2014 A Quantitative Study of Educational Poverty, School Location, and Student Achievement Measured by the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) Doctoral dissertation ( St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L 2017 Fact-Checking Assertions About the President’s Travel Ban New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bilkey 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Bilkey 2004, Xu and Chen 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xu and Chen 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Banu et al 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysiological Measurement
AbbreviationPhysiol. Meas.
ISSN (print)0967-3334
ISSN (online)1361-6579
Biomedical Engineering
Physiology (medical)

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