How to format your references using the Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Jenkins, Graduate journal: one of those days, Nature. 427 (2004) 870.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. Handschin, B.M. Spiegelman, The role of exercise and PGC1alpha in inflammation and chronic disease, Nature. 454 (2008) 463–469.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Bajcsy, A.S. Zibrov, M.D. Lukin, Stationary pulses of light in an atomic medium, Nature. 426 (2003) 638–641.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Wang, Q.-Z. Yin, W. Zhang, A novel molecular index for secondary oil migration distance, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2487.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Reeder, Guide to Green Building Rating Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
I. Ahmed, Z. (david) Chen, eds., Computational Electromagnetics—Retrospective and Outlook: In Honor of Wolfgang J.R. Hoefer, Springer, Singapore, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Geldenhuys, H. Hansen, Larger Automata and Less Work for LTL Model Checking, in: A. Valmari (Ed.), Model Checking Software: 13th International SPIN Workshop, Vienna, Austria, March 30 - April 1, 2006. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006: pp. 53–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Chinese Astronaut Says He Heard A Strange Knocking Sound While In Space, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Attack Warning: ADP and Communication Modernization Programs for Warning and Assessment, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.S. Domec, Development, Characterization, and Resultant Properties of a Carbon, Boron, and Chromium Ternary Diffusion System, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, Justices to Decide if Citizens May Challenge White House’s Religion-Based Initiative, New York Times. (2006) A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysiological and Molecular Plant Pathology
AbbreviationPhysiol. Mol. Plant Pathol.
ISSN (print)0885-5765
ScopePlant Science

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