How to format your references using the Applied In Vitro Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied In Vitro Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Altman E. Physics. Critical Insights. Science 2007:315;1504–1505.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stone R, Jasny B. Communication in science pressures and predators. Scientific discourse: buckling at the seams. Introduction. Science 2013:342;56–57.
A journal article with 3 authors
Antonioni A, Sanchez A, Tomassini M. Global information and mobility support coordination among humans. Sci Rep 2014:4;6458.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Peng Y, Ellis BD, Wang X, et al. Reversible reactions of ethylene with distannynes under ambient conditions. Science 2009:325;1668–1670.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Altman MC. Kant and Applied Ethics. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Proctor H, Brownlee P, Freebody P, editors. Controversies in Education: Orthodoxy and Heresy in Policy and Practice. vol. 3. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Adams JM, Wolfe JW, Ehrenfeld JM. Pharmacology of Intravenous Anesthetic AgentsIn: Anesthesia Student Survival Guide: A Case-Based Approach. Ehrenfeld Jesse M., Urman Richard D., Segal Scott (eds); pp. 41–56. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied In Vitro Toxicology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. These Four Astronauts Will Fly New Private Spacecraft For NASA In 2017. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Urban Underclass: Disturbing Problems Demanding Attention. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moran JA. Investigating the circumstellar environments of young stars with the PROMPT polarimeter. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. THE 1992 ELECTIONS: CELEBRATION MAN IN THE NEWS: William Jefferson Blythe Clinton; A Man Who Wants to Be Liked, and Is. New York Times 1992;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied In Vitro Toxicology
AbbreviationAppl. In Vitro Toxicol.
ISSN (print)2332-1512
ISSN (online)2332-1539

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