How to format your references using the Applied In Vitro Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied In Vitro Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grinnell F. It is time to update US biomedical funding. Nature 2013:501;137.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sagarin R, Micheli F. Climate change in nontraditional data sets. Science 2001:294;811.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fouchier RAM, Herfst S, Osterhaus ADME. Public health and biosecurity. Restricted data on influenza H5N1 virus transmission. Science 2012:335;662–663.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Barbera AJ, Chodaparambil JV, Kelley-Clarke B, et al. The nucleosomal surface as a docking station for Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus LANA. Science 2006:311;856–861.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dos Santos EC Jr, Cabral da Silva ER. ADVANCED POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Borchardt RT, Kerns EH, Hageman MJ, et al., editors. Optimizing the “Drug-Like” Properties of Leads in Drug Discovery. vol. IV. New York, NY: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Murata A. Stuck in BetweenIn: Foreign Language Education in Japan: Exploring Qualitative Approaches. Horiguchi Sachiko, Imoto Yuki, Poole Gregory S. (eds); pp. 51–64. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied In Vitro Toxicology.

Blog post
Evans K. Most Dietary Supplements Are Useless, But Here Are The Ones You Should Take. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Maritime Infrastructure: Opportunities Exist to Improve the Effectiveness of Federal Efforts to Support the Marine Transportation System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fleming TC. The Academic Identity Experience of Liberal Arts Faculty in the Age of New Managerialism. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. A Timeless Observer. New York Times 2016;BR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied In Vitro Toxicology
AbbreviationAppl. In Vitro Toxicol.
ISSN (print)2332-1512
ISSN (online)2332-1539

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