How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Medical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Medical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nadis S. Industry considers carbon catching. Nature 2000;406(6793):224.
A journal article with 2 authors
Alabugin I, Mohamed RK. Chemistry. A CO₂ cloak for the cyanide dagger. Science 2014;344(6179):45–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
McCarter J, Boge G, Darlow G. Essays on science and society. Safeguarding the world’s natural treasures. Science 2001;294(5549):2099–101.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gulde S, Riebe M, Lancaster GPT, Becher C, Eschner J, Häffner H, et al. Implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on an ion-trap quantum computer. Nature 2003;421(6918):48–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perrin V. MRI Techniques. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Pitkethly J. Dualisability: Unary Algebras and Beyond. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Mizuguchi S, Ohta K, Beers PJ, Yamaguchi M, Nishimura T. Interactions Among Multiple Niche-Innovations and Multi-regimes: The Case of the “Welfare Mall” in Higashiomi. In: Loorbach D, Wittmayer JM, Shiroyama H, Fujino J, Mizuguchi S, editors. Governance of Urban Sustainability Transitions: European and Asian Experiences. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2016. page 69–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Medical Sciences.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Discovery Of Cosmic Web Feeding A Protogalaxy Could Reveal How Galaxies Form. IFLScience2015;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Abstracts of Reports and Testimony: Fiscal Year 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barta ME. Culture, customer-centricity, and customer relationship management in an online postsecondary learning institution. 2009;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis J. Eritrean Couple’s Reunion, Decades in the Making. New York Times2016;A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Medical Sciences
AbbreviationIndian J. Med. Sci.
ISSN (print)0019-5359
ISSN (online)1998-3654
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles