How to format your references using the Physiological and Biochemical Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tyler R.H. 2008. Strong ocean tidal flow and heating on moons of the outer planets. Nature 456:770–772.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fernandez J.M. and H. Li. 2004. Force-clamp spectroscopy monitors the folding trajectory of a single protein. Science 303:1674–1678.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bishop J.R., M. Schuksz, and J.D. Esko. 2007. Heparan sulphate proteoglycans fine-tune mammalian physiology. Nature 446:1030–1037.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang C., Z. Wang, J. Dong, R. Pan, H. Qiu, J. Zhang, P. Zhang, et al. 2014. Bilirubin modulates acetylcholine receptors in rat superior cervical ganglionic neurons in a bidirectional manner. Sci Rep 4:7475.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taylor T.A. 2010. Guide to LEED® 2009 Estimating and Preconstruction Strategies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Maji P., A. Ghosh, M.N. Murty, K. Ghosh, and S.K. Pal, eds. 2013. Pattern Recognition and Machine Intelligence: 5th International Conference, PReMI 2013, Kolkata, India, December 10-14, 2013. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Vol. 8251). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Reddy G.V., K.U. Karanth, N.S. Kumar, J. Krishnaswamy, and K.K. Karanth. 2016. Results and Findings. Pp. 43–84 in K.U. Karanth, N.S. Kumar, J. Krishnaswamy, and K.K. Karanth eds. Recovering Biodiversity in Indian Forests, SpringerBriefs in Ecology. Springer, Singapore.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physiological and Biochemical Zoology.

Blog post
Fang J. 2014. Beaked Whale Smashes Record with Nearly 2-Mile Dive. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. High Speed Passenger Rail: Future Development Will Depend on Addressing Financial and Other Challenges and Establishing a Clear Federal Role (No. GAO-09-317). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guilford T.D. 2010. Advocacy for former prisoners to eliminate invisible bars: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. 2017. One of Us. New York Times, p. C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tyler 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Fernandez and Li 2004; Tyler 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fernandez and Li 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysiological and Biochemical Zoology
AbbreviationPhysiol. Biochem. Zool.
ISSN (print)1522-2152
ISSN (online)1537-5293
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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