How to format your references using the Physiological and Biochemical Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Siegel J.M. 2005. Clues to the functions of mammalian sleep. Nature 437:1264–1271.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hannisdal B. and S.E. Peters. 2011. Phanerozoic Earth system evolution and marine biodiversity. Science 334:1121–1124.
A journal article with 3 authors
Torsvik V., L. Øvreås, and T.F. Thingstad. 2002. Prokaryotic diversity--magnitude, dynamics, and controlling factors. Science 296:1064–1066.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Weisheit M., S. Fähler, A. Marty, Y. Souche, C. Poinsignon, and D. Givord. 2007. Electric field-induced modification of magnetism in thin-film ferromagnets. Science 315:349–351.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ray Chaudhuri N., B. Chaudhuri, R. Majumder, and A. Yazdani. 2014. Multi-Terminal Direct-Current Grids. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kiselevsky M.V., ed. 2012. Malignant Effusions: Pleuritis, Ascites, Pericardites. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen H. 2012. Meditations on Quantified Constraint Satisfaction. Pp. 35–49 in R.L. Constable and A. Silva eds. Logic and Program Semantics: Essays Dedicated to Dexter Kozen on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physiological and Biochemical Zoology.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2016. Wedge-Tailed Eagles Keep Attacking A Mining Company’s Drones. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. USDA Information Management: Extensive Improvements Needed in Managing Information Technology Investments (No. T-AIMD-97-90). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pratt P.R. 2009. Analysis of the thermo-mechanical characteristics of the LENSTM process for steels using the finite element method (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hussey K. 2015. Troubling Text Before a Couple Vanished in Connecticut: ‘Did You Hurt Mom?’ New York Times, p. A33.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Siegel 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Siegel 2005; Hannisdal and Peters 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hannisdal and Peters 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Weisheit et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysiological and Biochemical Zoology
AbbreviationPhysiol. Biochem. Zool.
ISSN (print)1522-2152
ISSN (online)1537-5293
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

Other styles