How to format your references using the Physiological and Biochemical Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Drake N. 2015. How to catch a cloud. Nature 522:115–116.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gardner K.H. and F. Correa. 2012. Plant science. How plants see the invisible. Science 335:1451–1452.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shalm L.K., R.B.A. Adamson, and A.M. Steinberg. 2009. Squeezing and over-squeezing of triphotons. Nature 457:67–70.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhu Y., L.-N. Zhu, R. Guo, H.-J. Cui, S. Ye, and Q. Fang. 2014. Nanoliter-scale protein crystallization and screening with a microfluidic droplet robot. Sci Rep 4:5046.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hellesland J., N. Challamel, C. Casandjian, and C. Lanos. 2013. Reinforced Concrete Beams, Columns and Frames. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Lee S.-W., H.H. Bülthoff, and K.-R. Müller, eds. 2015. Recent Progress in Brain and Cognitive Engineering. Trends in Augmentation of Human Performance (1st ed. 2015., Vol. 5). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Miranda L.S., A.C. Morandini, and A.C. Marques. 2012. Do Staurozoa bloom? A review of stauromedusan population biology. Pp. 57–67 in J. Purcell, H. Mianzan, and J.R. Frost eds. Jellyfish Blooms IV: Interactions with humans and fisheries. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physiological and Biochemical Zoology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. 2016. France Joins The Hyperloop Race By Investing In American Company. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Information Management: The National Technical Information Service’s Dissemination of Technical Reports Needs Attention (No. GAO-14-781T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valenzuela J. 2014. Medicare advantage’s population make-up and its impact on the future of Medicare financing (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch J. 2016. The Deflategate Scientists Unlock Their Lab. New York Times, p. SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Drake 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Gardner and Correa 2012; Drake 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gardner and Correa 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysiological and Biochemical Zoology
AbbreviationPhysiol. Biochem. Zool.
ISSN (print)1522-2152
ISSN (online)1537-5293
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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