How to format your references using the Physiological and Biochemical Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crabtree R.H. 2002. Chemistry. A new oxidation state for Pd? Science 295:288–289.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scully K.M. and M.G. Rosenfeld. 2002. Pituitary development: regulatory codes in mammalian organogenesis. Science 295:2231–2235.
A journal article with 3 authors
Skourti-Stathaki K., K. Kamieniarz-Gdula, and N.J. Proudfoot. 2014. R-loops induce repressive chromatin marks over mammalian gene terminators. Nature 516:436–439.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Llewellyn M.E., R.P.J. Barretto, S.L. Delp, and M.J. Schnitzer. 2008. Minimally invasive high-speed imaging of sarcomere contractile dynamics in mice and humans. Nature 454:784–788.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kar P. 2013. Doping in Conjugated Polymers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Blondel P. and J.W. Mason, eds. 2006. Solar System Update. Springer Praxis Books. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Gao W.-Y. and K.-Y. Paek. 2013. Seeking for New Members of Origin Materials (A New Usage of Plant Species) for CMM. Pp. 83–104 in L.-Q. Huang ed. Molecular Pharmacognosy. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physiological and Biochemical Zoology.

Blog post
Andrews R. 2015. Lizard Grows Six Tails At Once, Setting A New World Record. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Mass Transit: Status of New Starts Program and Potential for Bus Rapid Transit Projects (No. GAO-02-840T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McGaughey K.M. 2017. Textural juxtaposition: Representing the natural and the human in Elements (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. 2010. For Knicks’ Lee, a Grandfather, Mentor and Pal. New York Times, p. B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crabtree 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Crabtree 2002; Scully and Rosenfeld 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Scully and Rosenfeld 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Llewellyn et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysiological and Biochemical Zoology
AbbreviationPhysiol. Biochem. Zool.
ISSN (print)1522-2152
ISSN (online)1537-5293
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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