How to format your references using the Physiological and Biochemical Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ray L.B. 2010. Metabolism. Metabolism is not boring. Introduction. Science 330:1337.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Grady M. and G. O’Hare. 2012. Computer science. How smart is your city? Science 335:1581–1582.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu M., J.C. Pastor-Pareja, and T. Xu. 2010. Interaction between Ras(V12) and scribbled clones induces tumour growth and invasion. Nature 463:545–548.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
O’Brien M., N. McEvoy, T. Hallam, H.-Y. Kim, N.C. Berner, D. Hanlon, K. Lee, et al. 2014. Transition metal dichalcogenide growth via close proximity precursor supply. Sci Rep 4:7374.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schmidt A.B. 2011. Financial Markets and Trading. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Zhang Q. 2012. Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems. (C. Liu & X. Zhang, eds.)Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences (Vol. 421). Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Jędrzejowicz J. and P. Jędrzejowicz. 2006. Agent-Based Approach to Solving Difficult Scheduling Problems. Pp. 24–33 in M. Ali and R. Dapoigny eds. Advances in Applied Artificial Intelligence: 19th International Conference on Industrial, Engineering and Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems, IEA/AIE 2006, Annecy, France, June 27-30, 2006 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physiological and Biochemical Zoology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2016. Why It’s Impossible To Actually Be A Vegetarian. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Household Goods Transport (No. GGD-92-23R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huffer D.J. 2013. A spatial analysis and zooarchaeological interpretation of archaeological bison remains in the Southwest and the wildlife management implications for the House Rock Valley bison herd in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. 2017. The Fight to Stay Alive. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ray 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Ray 2010; O’Grady and O’Hare 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Grady and O’Hare 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (O’Brien et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysiological and Biochemical Zoology
AbbreviationPhysiol. Biochem. Zool.
ISSN (print)1522-2152
ISSN (online)1537-5293
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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