How to format your references using the Physics of Fluids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics of Fluids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1 B. Horton, “Universities encourage industrialists to come back to their roots,” Nature 404(6779), 793–794 (2000).
A journal article with 2 authors
1 T. Yamazaki, and H. Oda, “Orbital influence on Earth’s magnetic field: 100,000-year periodicity in inclination,” Science 295(5564), 2435–2438 (2002).
A journal article with 3 authors
1 L.A. Liotta, M. Ferrari, and E. Petricoin, “Clinical proteomics: written in blood,” Nature 425(6961), 905 (2003).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1 K.E. Strecker, G.B. Partridge, A.G. Truscott, and R.G. Hulet, “Formation and propagation of matter-wave soliton trains,” Nature 417(6885), 150–153 (2002).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1 D.M. Kim, Introductory Quantum Mechanics for Applied Nanotechnology (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2015).
An edited book
1 Z. Michalewicz, Adaptive Business Intelligence (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006).
A chapter in an edited book
1 A.R. Tonelli, F. Rouhani, and M.L. Brantly, in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin: Role in Health and Disease, edited by A. Wanner and R.A. Sandhaus (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016), pp. 85–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics of Fluids.

Blog post
1 D. Andrew, “Top 10 Insane Unexplained Scientific Discoveries,” IFLScience, (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1 Government Accountability Office, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Major Management Issues Facing DOD’s Development and Fielding Efforts (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1 M. Aghaee, Analysis of Dynamics and Optimal Control for an SIR Epidemiological Model with Time-Varying Populations, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1 M. Pilon, “Tennessee Set to Drop Tax,” New York Times, B15 (2014).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics of Fluids
AbbreviationPhys. Fluids (1994)
ISSN (print)1070-6631
ISSN (online)1089-7666
ScopeCondensed Matter Physics

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