How to format your references using the International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Neuenschwander, Harnessing nature in Africa, Nature. 432 (2004) 801–802.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Hedwig, J.F.A. Poulet, Complex auditory behaviour emerges from simple reactive steering, Nature. 430 (2004) 781–785.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Wang, N. Hashimoto, S. Ohnuki, Hydrogen-induced change in core structures of {110}[111] edge and {110}[111] screw dislocations in iron, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2760.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Sun, Y. Tsuchiya, T. Taen, T. Yamada, S. Pyon, A. Sugimoto, T. Ekino, Z. Shi, T. Tamegai, Dynamics and mechanism of oxygen annealing in Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 single crystal, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4585.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L.A. Belfiore, Transport Phenomena for Chemical Reactor Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2003.
An edited book
H. Selin, ed., Parenting Across Cultures: Childrearing, Motherhood and Fatherhood in Non-Western Cultures, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Shtukenberg, Y.O. Punin, Superimposition of Optical Anomalies, in: Y.O. Punin, B. Kahr (Eds.), Optically Anomalous Crystals, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2007: pp. 201–210.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, What Should We Do About The 15,000 Asian Elephants Still In Captivity?, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Head Start: Better Data and Processes Needed to Monitor Underenrollment, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Shlapak, Mental health of foster youth in Ventura County, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Baker, In Vancouver, a New Effort to Sell Olympic Condos, New York Times. (2011) B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials
AbbreviationInt. J. Refract. Hard Met.
ISSN (print)0263-4368
ScopeMetals and Alloys

Other styles