How to format your references using the International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E.C. Holmes, Virology. 1918 and all that, Science. 303 (2004) 1787–1788.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.N. Spitale, C.C. Porco, Association of the jets of Enceladus with the warmest regions on its south-polar fractures, Nature. 449 (2007) 695–697.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Suzuki, J.-I. Imura, K. Aihara, Chaotic Ising-like dynamics in traffic signals, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1127.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B. Zaban, W. Liu, X. Jiang, P. Nick, Plant cells use auxin efflux to explore geometry, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5852.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S.-L. Zhang, Raman Spectroscopy and its Application in Nanostructures, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2012.
An edited book
M. Friend, N.B. Goethe, V.S. Harizanov, eds., Induction, Algorithmic Learning Theory, and Philosophy, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
M.M. Richter, R.O. Weber, Case Representations, in: R.O. Weber (Ed.), Case-Based Reasoning: A Textbook, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 87–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Entangled Whale’s Ordeal Ends As Scientists Free It, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, The Role of Field Operations in the Federal Communications Commission’s Regulatory Structure, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.C. Mason, A Heart Like a Fakir’s The Life and Times of General Sir James Abbott, KCB, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Williams, Next Time, Maybe Don’t Use Airbnb, New York Times. (2017) C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials
AbbreviationInt. J. Refract. Hard Met.
ISSN (print)0263-4368
ScopeMetals and Alloys

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