How to format your references using the Physics in Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics in Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vogt M 2015 ECOLOGY. Adrift in an ocean of change Science 350 1466–8
A journal article with 2 authors
MacArthur B D and Oreffo R O C 2005 Bridging the gap Nature 433 19
A journal article with 3 authors
Morgan J L W, Strumillo J and Zimmer J 2013 Crystallographic snapshot of cellulose synthesis and membrane translocation Nature 493 181–6
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Li K, Jing Y, Yang C, Liu S, Zhao Y, He X, Li F, Han J and Li G 2014 Increased leukemia-associated gene expression in benzene-exposed workers Sci. Rep. 4 5369

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kerzner H 2015 Project Management 2.0 (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc)
An edited book
Ani Hsieh M and Chirikjian G 2014 Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems: The 11th International Symposium vol 104 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Adam M 2011 Multi-Level Complexities in Technological Development: Competing Strategies for Drug Discovery Science in the Context of Application Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science ed M Carrier and A Nordmann (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands) pp 67–83

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics in Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
Hale T 2016 You Can Draw Electrical Circuits With This Silver Pen IFLScience Online:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2000 Bank Regulators’ Evaluation of Electronic Signature Systems (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Scharf M T 2015 Comparing Student Cumulative Course Grades, Attrition, and Satisfaction in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Environments Doctoral dissertation (Scottsdale, AZ: Northcentral University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Crow K 2002 A New 92nd Street Y? Almost New York Times 144

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vogt 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Vogt 2015, MacArthur and Oreffo 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (MacArthur and Oreffo 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics in Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationPhys. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)0031-9155
ISSN (online)1361-6560
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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