How to format your references using the Physics in Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics in Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hellemans A 2000 Cantilever tales Science 290 1529
A journal article with 2 authors
Deban S M and Olson W M 2002 Suction feeding by a tiny predatory tadpole Nature 420 41–2
A journal article with 3 authors
Ren A, Rajashankar K R and Patel D J 2012 Fluoride ion encapsulation by Mg2+ ions and phosphates in a fluoride riboswitch Nature 486 85–9
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Han S-C, Shum C K, Bevis M, Ji C and Kuo C-Y 2006 Crustal dilatation observed by GRACE after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake Science 313 658–62

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
German Geotechnical Society 2013 Recommendations on Excavations EAB (D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH)
An edited book
Enders G H 2010 Cell Cycle Deregulation in Cancer (New York, NY: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Kreku J and Tiensyrjä K 2012 System Exploration Scalable Multi-core Architectures: Design Methodologies and Tools ed D Soudris and A Jantsch (New York, NY: Springer) pp 107–37

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics in Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
Fang J 2015 Nasty Fungus Is Imminent Threat to North American Salamanders IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2016 Hazardous Materials Rail Shipments: A Review of Emergency Response Information in Selected Train Documents (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Laskey E 2013 Plasma glucagon during development of insulin resistance among healthy individuals Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J 2017 At a Village Voice Reunion, They Laughed. They Cried. They Groused New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hellemans 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Hellemans 2000, Deban and Olson 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Deban and Olson 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Han et al 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics in Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationPhys. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)0031-9155
ISSN (online)1361-6560
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles