How to format your references using the Physics in Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics in Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruddiman W F 2006 Retrospective. Nicholas J. Shackleton (1937-2006) Science 312 711
A journal article with 2 authors
Fisher H S and Hoekstra H E 2010 Competition drives cooperation among closely related sperm of deer mice Nature 463 801–3
A journal article with 3 authors
McPhaden M J, Zebiak S E and Glantz M H 2006 ENSO as an integrating concept in earth science Science 314 1740–5
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Miller E J, Li J, Leng L, McDonald C, Atsumi T, Bucala R and Young L H 2008 Macrophage migration inhibitory factor stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase in the ischaemic heart Nature 451 578–82

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bowen C 2015 Children’s Speech Sound Disorders (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Copéret C and Chaudret B 2005 Surface and Interfacial Organometallic Chemistry and Catalysis vol 16 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Lacroix V, Sammeth M, Guigo R and Bergeron A 2008 Exact Transcriptome Reconstruction from Short Sequence Reads Algorithms in Bioinformatics: 8th International Workshop, WABI 2008, Karlsruhe, Germany, September 15-19, 2008. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed K A Crandall and J Lagergren (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 50–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics in Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
Fang J 2014 Asian Fungus is Killing European Salamanders, U.S. May Be Next IFLScience Online:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1971 Contract With Education, Training, and Research Sciences Corporation for Processing Applications To Serve in the VISTA Program (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clemons B L 2010 A correlational study of the ventures for excellence interview-rating system and first year teacher evaluations Doctoral dissertation ( St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman W 2015 Colombia Rebels End Truce After a Government Attack New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ruddiman 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Ruddiman 2006, Fisher and Hoekstra 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fisher and Hoekstra 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Miller et al 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics in Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationPhys. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)0031-9155
ISSN (online)1361-6560
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles