How to format your references using the Physics in Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics in Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Campbell C T 2004 Physics. The active site in nanoparticle gold catalysis Science 306 234–5
A journal article with 2 authors
Jacob Y and Martienssen R 2012 Molecular biology. All packed up and ready to go Science 336 1391–2
A journal article with 3 authors
Turner W R, Oppenheimer M and Wilcove D S 2009 A force to fight global warming Nature 462 278–9
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Turner S, Tonarini S, Bindeman I, Leeman W P and Schaefer B F 2007 Boron and oxygen isotope evidence for recycling of subducted components over the past 2.5 Gyr Nature 447 702–5

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tavakoli J M 2008 Structured Finance and Collateralized Debt Obligations (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Greiner W 2007 Quantum Chromodynamics ed S Schramm and E Stein (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Mongini C 2015 Morphogenesis Under Construction: Tracing the Process of Individuation Along Physico-Aesthetic Coordinates Morphogenesis and Individuation Lecture Notes in Morphogenesis ed A Sarti, F Montanari and F Galofaro (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 75–89

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics in Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 Invasive “Walking” Fish That Suffocates Its Predators May Be Coming For Australia IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1994 Health Care: Benefits and Barriers to Automated Medical Records (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shamsai M 2006 Prefabricated Cage System for Reinforcing Concrete Members Doctoral dissertation (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear M D and Haberman M 2017 Volume Rising In Nativist Talk From President New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Campbell 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Campbell 2004, Jacob and Martienssen 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jacob and Martienssen 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Turner et al 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics in Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationPhys. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)0031-9155
ISSN (online)1361-6560
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles