How to format your references using the Physics in Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics in Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski D 2003 Taiwan: Biotech vision Nature 421 672–3
A journal article with 2 authors
Stephens R and Richey M 2013 A business view on U.S. education Science 340 313–4
A journal article with 3 authors
Urban F E, Cole J E and Overpeck J T 2000 Influence of mean climate change on climate variability from a 155-year tropical Pacific coral record Nature 407 989–93
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Fang C, Smith P, Moncrieff J B and Smith J U 2005 Similar response of labile and resistant soil organic matter pools to changes in temperature Nature 433 57–9

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allan D and Bragg N 2012 802.1aq Shortest Path Bridging Design and Evolution (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Reis R, Cao Y and Wirth G 2015 Circuit Design for Reliability (New York, NY: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Dieter Zeh H 2007 Roots and Fruits of Decoherence Quantum Decoherence: Poincaré Seminar 2005 ed B Duplantier, J-M Raimond and V Rivasseau (Basel: Birkhäuser) pp 151–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics in Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
Luntz S 2014 Awesome Video Shows Sponges “Breathing” Out Dye IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2015 Air Travel and Communicable Diseases: Comprehensive Federal Plan Needed for U.S. Aviation System’s Preparedness (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coleman K M 2015 Parent involvement in the promotion of healthy outcomes for young girls: A grant writing project Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C 2012 Ann Richards Film Recalls A Woman and Her Era New York Times A23B

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski 2003, Stephens and Richey 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stephens and Richey 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Fang et al 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics in Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationPhys. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)0031-9155
ISSN (online)1361-6560
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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