How to format your references using the Physics in Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics in Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stella N 2012 Neuroscience. Inflammation to rebuild a brain Science 338 1303–4
A journal article with 2 authors
Oncescu V and Erickson D 2013 High volumetric power density, non-enzymatic, glucose fuel cells Sci. Rep. 3 1226
A journal article with 3 authors
Siegel D A, Doney S C and Yoder J A 2002 The North Atlantic spring phytoplankton bloom and Sverdrup’s critical depth hypothesis Science 296 730–3
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Boris A V, Kovaleva N N, Dolgov O V, Holden T, Lin C T, Keimer B and Bernhard C 2004 In-plane spectral weight shift of charge carriers in YBa2Cu3O6.9 Science 304 708–10

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schrör K 2016 Acetylsalicylic Acid (Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA)
An edited book
Bonivento C, Marconi L, Rossi C and Isidori A 2007 Advances in Control Theory and Applications vol 353 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Fei S, Crawford M and Schibig J 2010 Assisting Natural Resource Management in Mammoth Cave National Park Using Geospatial Technology Geospatial Technologies in Environmental Management ed N Hoalst-Pullen and M W Patterson (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands) pp 49–61

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics in Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
Andrew D 2016 Is It True Only Half Your Friends Actually Like You? IFLScience Online:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1993 Amtrak Safety: Amtrak Should Implement Minimum Safety Standards for Passenger Cars (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amodeo G A 2009 Structural and biochemical characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK homolog SNF1 Doctoral dissertation (New York, NY: Columbia University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M 2012 I.O.C. Rejects ’72 Remembrance New York Times B10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stella 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Stella 2012, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Oncescu and Erickson 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Boris et al 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics in Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationPhys. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)0031-9155
ISSN (online)1361-6560
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles